As part of joint research on site monitoring, we executed a field survey on cave mural paintings in southern Sulawesi with the Borobudur Heritage Conservation Office in Indonesia from January 24 to 30. There are over 100 limestone caves in southern Sulawesi, and several of the caves have mural paintings which were presumably drawn 3,000 to 1,000 years ago. Many of the murals were created by blowing red colorant over the human hand as it was pressed to the wall, with motifs of regional unique animals such as babyrousa (a species of wild boar),anoa (a species of cattle), fish, birds, and boats appearing. On the murals, phenomena such as changes in rock composition through water leaching, surface recrystallization and the detachment of rocky surfaces were visible, and it is conceivable that changes in the environment, such as the cutting down of peripheral trees, caused the murals to deteriorate. We visited eight caves at the local site, and discussed the causes of deterioration and measures for future conservation with the conservation specialists in Indonesia. We plan to investigate monitoring techniques in order to establish appropriate conservation plans jointly with the Borobudur Heritage Conservation Office and the local Makassar Cultural Heritage Conservation Center.
|■Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties||■Center for Conservation Science|
|■Department of Art Research, Archives and Information Systems||■Japan Center for International Cooperation in Conservation|
|■Department of Intangible Cultural Heritage|
China and five Central Asiatic countries (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) are now proceeding with preparations aimed at the collective registration (cross border serial nomination) of cultural heritage objects along the Silk Road in a World Heritage Site as “Silk Road” . This project supports the application for this registration. Based upon this, the five central Asian countries aim to establish a base for the documentation of cultural assets in each country through the cultivation of talent, exchange of technology, creation of an archive material management system and cooperation towards creating an organization. Before starting this project, we held discussions with the relevant people of the five countries in Central Asia to determine courses of action and other specific information. Per UNESCO’s request, the Japan Center for International Cooperation in Conservation participated in the preparation mission by touring these Central Asiatic countries (excluding Turkmenistan) from January 8 to 19. Through this mission, we were made keenly aware of the necessity of support and cooperative activities that suit actual conditions in each country when executing the project. It is because despite all being in Central Asia, there are great differences in the funding, human resources and technical abilities between these countries. It was confirmed that many photos, drawings and reports produced by the investigation of cultural heritage conducted in the age of the Soviet Union were stored in each country. It is hoped that these precious records and materials will be taken advantage of as a shared Central Asian resource through digitization and the compilation of databases.
The Japan Center for International Cooperation in Conservation will participate in this project by investigating remains using the latest equipment, compiling records and materials in database, and supporting and cooperating in the holding of workshops and symposiums. Through this we hope to promote talent and facilitate the exchange of technology with regards to the cultural heritage of Central Asia.
On December 2, we hosted a lecture by Ms. Amira Edan al-Dahab, the chief of the secretariat of Iraq National Museum, at the meeting room on the basement floor of the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo. The news on the 2003 looting of the Iraq National Museum in chaos in after the Iraq War shocked the world. The Iraq National Museum resumed operation at last in February 2009, supported by the international community, including Japan, Italy, and many other countries.
Ms. Amira came to Japan this time under the auspices of the Foreign Ministry’s “Invitation for Promoting Partnership in the 21th Century”, and took this opportunity to hold a lecture. She reported on the long path from the looting of the Museum to its re-opening and the numerous troubles that accompanied each step with showing many photos. Ms. Amira also referred to the training of Iraqi conservators that is held by the Japan Center for International Cooperation in Conservation, funded by grants from the UNESCO/Japanese Funds-in-Trust and the Institute, and the government subsidized budget ,and repeatedly asserted that the continuous support from Japan is indispensable to restore the cultural properties in Iraq.
The National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) are conducting joint research on the conservation of the mural paintings of the Ajanta Caves under the framework of “the Exchange Program of International Cooperation of Cultural Heritage” commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs and the government subsidized budget for “the Cooperative Project for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage in West Asia”.
In the third mission, undertaken from November to December 2009, we tried to solve various issues, including bat excrement, discoloration due to the yellowing of the previously-used varnish, and cracks and floating in the colored layers, and performed tentative cleaning of the mural paintings with ASI specialists.
We established a joint research contract with Doshisha University on digital documentation for mural painting conservation and jointly performed three-dimensional measurement to create drawings of the current status of the Cave No. 2 and No. 9. We executed these conservation and measurement procedures together with Indian specialists and shared knowledge on conservation of cultural heritage and performed technical exchange aiming at capacity development and transfer of techniques.
The Japan Consortium for International Cooperation in Cultural Heritage Held a Symposium Titled “Can Tourism Save Cultural Heritage? New Developments in International Cooperation”
As part of the Consortium program commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, we held the above-mentioned symposium at the Heiseikan Auditorium of Tokyo National Museum on December 14. The symposium started with a keynote lecture on the activities of UNESCO for compatibility of the protection of world heritage and the development for tourism followed by reports from two specialists. Mr. Noriaki Nishiyama pointed out the importance of the viewpoint of “living heritage” when considering cultural heritage and tourism, and Mr. Yuji Seki gave a presentation on a case in Peru where the protection of cultural heritage and the building of museum were promoted through the strength of the community. The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) reported the activities for tourist destination development, including the case in Jordan, and Ms. Naoko Hamajima, who has been visiting every corner of the world as a TV reporter, proposed a method of tourism enjoying seeing cultural heritage.
Along with specialists, many regular citizens attended the symposium and asked questions. Discussions were held on how to contribute to local communities through international cooperation and on the specific methods and issues in protecting cultural heritage using tourism, as tourism which does not conflict with the protection of cultural heritage is a hot topic.
This program was planned as a five-year project starting in 2006, and is currently in its fourth year. We executed a training course on the conservation of historical buildings from this spring to summer, followed by a museum technical training course for three months from September 14 to December 11, as the second program for 2009.
A total of 14 trainees from Shinjang, Gansu, Ningxia, Shanxi, and Henan provinces and autonomous regions gathered along the Silk Road in China, took theoretical course lessons in Beijing for two months, and then took practical course sessions at the Ningxia Museum in Yinchuan city of Ningxiahuizu Autonomous Region for one month from the middle of November. During this period, a total of 15 instructors participated in these courses from the Institute, the Tokyo and Kyushu National Museums, universities, and studios producing materials for protection of cultural heritage, and conducted classes with the Chinese instructors.
The training at Ningxia Museum was on the measurement and analysis of the storage/exhibit environment, and the creation of theme exhibition design plans based on an actual museum’s stored items and exhibition rooms. The trainees had learned enormous amount of ideas and technical theories through the classes, conducted over many hours by the Japanese and Chinese instructors and were able to gain an secure understanding of the ideas and techniques through on-the-job training. This systematic museology training course provided with both theory and practice was first realized in China. The Ningxia Museum, which was completed in 2007 and is equipped with the state-of-the-art hardware, presented a challenge in that it was not in satisfactory condition on how to do the daily operation. We were glad that the acceptance of these training sessions inspired the museum’s staff. The completion ceremony on December 11 was attended by more than 50 of the museum’s staff members.
The Program for Capacity Building along the Silk Road will be finished when the training course for conserving and restoring textiles and mural paintings is conducted in next year.
Conservation and Restoration of Mural Painting Fragments in Tajikistan and Capacity Building (Sixth Mission)
The Japan Center for International Cooperation in Conservation dispatched the 6th mission for Conservation and Restoration of Mural Painting Fragments in the collection of the National Museum of Antiquities of Tajikistan as part of an exchange program commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs from October 4 to November 17, 2009. Together with the four Tajik trainees, we restored the mural painting fragments excavated from the Kara-i Kahkaha (Shahristan) site in northern Tajikistan in continuation of the previous mission. Joining the mural fragments of plant pattern excavated from the same site and cleaning were finished and securing the joined fragments on a new support (mount) was completed by the previous mission. As finishing work, in this mission we coated the missing part on the surface and the sides with filling agent and attached a bracket to the back.
On October 28, we installed the mural paintings in the exhibition room of the Museum under the auspices of the Japanese Embassy Provisional Acting Ambassador in Tajikistan and the participants in the workshop of Conservation and Restoration of Mural Paintings unearthed in Central Asia 2009. All participants shared the delight of the Tajik trainees, who joined and cleaned the mural painting for themselves and first exhibited it. We will cooperate in fostering conservation experts in Tajikistan through the restoration/conservation work.
As requested by the UNESCO Jakarta Office and the Indonesian Government, we surveyed the status of cultural heritage damaged in Padang struck by West Sumatra Earthquake on November 11 to 25. The survey was divided into a survey of historical buildings conducted by Mr. Shimizu Shinichi and Ms. AKIEDA Yumi Isabelle (at the Japan Center for International Cooperation in Conservation) and Mr. Takeuchi Masakazu (at the Agency for Cultural Affairs), and a survey on city planning carried out by Mr. Shuji Huno (at the University of Shiga Prefecture) and Mr. Takeuchi Yasushi (at the Miyagi University). The results of these surveys will be incorporated in the Padang reconstruction plan created by the Indonesian Government through UNESCO.
Padang is the provincial capital of West Sumatra, and the history of the city’s formation can be tracked back to the 17th century. The earthquake was large-scale, and many RC-structure public buildings and schools of three stories and greater were damaged, and a lot of historical buildings where residents were now living were also damaged. How to handle the recovery going forward while promoting community participation is a big issue going forward.
The project of fostering experts in conservation laboratories of Iraq National Museum has been conducted since 2004 with funding from grants from the Institute and UNESCO/Japanese Funds-in-Trust. Through this project, the Japan Center for International Cooperation in Conservation has invited total 18 conservation experts as trainees, and trainees who have returned to their home countries are making use of the techniques they learned in restoring various cultural properties.
In pevious training sessions, the trainees have practiced using the equipment offered to the museum, centering on metalware, with the cooperation of various organizations in Japan. This year, we conducted training on the conservation and restoration of dyed textiles, and using the instruments necessary to conserve and restore cultural heritage and analyze materials (training on equipment use), in line with the wishes of UNESCO and the Iraq National Museum. Although it was a relatively short period of three months from June 18 to September 19, we not only conducted training on conservation and restoration techniques, but introduced lectures on the concept of conservation that informs the techniques and on diverse scientific knowledge, as well as practical training aimed at fostering human resources who can train specialists at each museum rather than just simple restoration experts. The training was carried out with the cooperation of university researchers, who took the lead of conservation and analysis of dyed textiles, as well as conservation/restoration experts. At the Shizuoka Research Institute for Buried Cultural Heritage, the trainees learned how to conserve archeological relics, treat unearthed objects at an excavation site, and handle items buried at actual sites. In terms of practical training on the conservation and restoration of dyed textiles, we asked professors specialized in the basics of conservation and the history of dyed textiles to give basic lectures on their specialties, and the trainees had practical training on conservation/restoration and storage management of the short-sleeved kimono of the Edo Period and the Coptic textiles owned by Joshibi University of Art and Design with the cooperation of the university. The trainees also attended lectures on the usage of various instruments and analytical techniques as well as practical training with the cooperation of the Center for Conservation Science and Restoration Techniques of the Institute and the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties. In January 2009, some exhibitions restarted in the Iraq National Museum. So far, one-third of the cultural properties which were lost during the chaos in Iraq have been returned to the Museum, and they are now gradually but securely advancing toward restoration. We are looking forward to seeing the conservation specialists who participated in this training bear the future of the Museum and contribute to Iraq’s recovery.
From October 23 to 28, we held a workshop titled “2009 Conservation and Restoration of Murals unearthed in Central Asia” at the National Museum of Antiquities, Tajikistan. This workshop took place as part of a project for the conservation and restoration of mural pieces owned by the National Museum of Antiquities, Tajikistan. The National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo has been working on together with the Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography, Academy of Science, Tajikistan, under the framework of Networking Core Centres for International Cooperation on Conservation of Cultural Heritage funded by the Agency for Cultural Affairs. This was the second such workshop held, following a similar one held last year. This year, in addition to the three experts from the Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz and Turkmenistan), we invited two experts from the Mural Restoration Laboratories of The State Hermitage Museum, Russia, and one expert from the DunHuang Academy. Six trainees from the National Museum of Antiquities, Tajikistan also participated in the workshop. At the workshop, the Russian restoration specialists reported on the method of restoring murals unearthed from the Central Asia executed in the former Soviet Union, and other participants reported on conservation/restoration activities in their own countries. We introduced restoration/conservation methods currently being employed in Tajikistan, and asked participants to experience part of the actual works. We will hold the similar workshops in the future with the aim of promoting mural restoration/conservation activities in Central Asia and improving restoration/conservation methods.
The 23rd Conference on International Cooperation on Conservation titled “Why have Sites Remained?” was held on October 8, with 43 participants. When considering site conservation, damaged sections are generally investigated and the cause of the deterioration is studied. At this conference, however, we selected well-conserved sites, examined why they have remained undamaged, and aimed to consider the conservation of damaged sites going forward. Three presentations were made and overall discussions were held: Ms. Paola Virgili from the Rome Cultural Heritage Preservation Bureau, Italy presented “Augustus Pantheon and Hadrian’s Pantheon: Studies, digs, research and diagnosis for future conservation and prevention”, Mr. Harada Masahiro from the Tottori Buried Cultural Property Center presented “Conservation Environment of Aoyakamijichi Site”, and Mr. Cecep Eka Permana from the University of Indonesia presented “Rock art in South Sulawesi, Indonesia”. Conference participants understood the background and scientific conditions for site survival, and shared useful information for future site conservation.
Mission for Investigating the Establishment of Detailed Plans to Foster Specialists for the Conservation Center of the Grand Egyptian Museum
The Japan Center for International Cooperation in Conservation continues to provide technical support for the establishment and operation of the Conservation Center which is an affiliated organization of the Grand Egyptian Museum, as requested by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).
We dispatched a mission of 10 Japanese experts in conservation/restoration and storage/management and two of the Institute’s staff members to Egypt for preliminary investigation from October 26 to November 14 at the longest (schedule differs depending on specialty field in charge). The purpose of this mission is to establish a plan of fostering human resources in the full-scale cooperation stage, Phase II (second stage), which is to start in April, 2010.
During this period, we visited the Conservation Center of Grand Egyptian Museum twice, had repeated discussions with the executives of the project on the Egyptian side and the restoration specialists who were proceeding with the preparations at the local site, and learned about the progress of the establishment of the Center. Also, we had an opportunity to visit the repository of the Museum to which the cultural properties are to be moved and talk with the restoration specialists, and learned about the current situation of conservation/restoration of cultural properties in Egypt. Based on the results of this investigation, we will summarize the human resource fostering plan established by an expert, and submit it to Egypt through JICA. We will promote further cooperation toward the establishment and operation of the Center.
Research Project for the Conservation of Mural Paintings of the Ajanta Caves – Second Mission Report
The National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) are conducting joint research on the conservation of Mural Paintings of the Ajanta Caves under the framework of ”Networking Core Centres for International Cooperation on Conservation of Cultural Heritage” funded by the Agency for Cultural Affairs. The mural paintings of the Ajanta Caves have been damaged by rainwater entering the caves through cracks in the basalt, bat excrement, (whitening and blackening), artificial factors, and have discoloration issues due to the yellowing of the shellac (varnish coatings) used for previous restoration work and cracks and floating in the colored layers. In the second mission undertaken in September, 2009, all of the mural paintings in the second cave were subject to high-definition digital photograph recording and colorimetry to record in detail the conservation status of the mural paintings. We photographed and measured the murals together with the Indian specialists, aiming at sharing knowledge and technical exchange on digital documentation for conserving cultural heritage.
The National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo is conducting joint research on conservation of Thai cultural heritage together with the Fine Arts Department of the Ministry of Culture of Thailand. We executed a joint on-site investigation from September 14 to 16. Wat Sri Chum of the Sukhothai ruins has a great Buddha statue taller than 15m, the core of which was made from bricks and the surface finished with plaster. The entire surface of the Buddha statue had been covered with moss and algae, but because of the water repellent treatment applied 11 years ago, the Buddha statue was kept clean for awhile. However, since dirt due to algae, etc. has been somewhat noticeable recent years, some countermeasures have been investigated through observation of the Buddha statue, experiments by sample installation, and micrometeorological observation. In addition to these activities in Wat Sri Chum, we have observed the surrounding ruins, and specifically reviewed the advantages and disadvantages in cases where a chamber was installed in the remains.
The National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) are engaged in joint research on conservation of the Ajanta Caves in India in the framework of the exchange program commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs starting in 2008. We invited experts in the conservation of the Ajanta Caves and their mural paintings and held this meeting to discuss the common issue of conserving Buddhist stone caves and mural paintings in the area along the Silk Road, along with the international contributions of Japan through conservation and restoration.
From the Archaeological Survey of India, we invited Mr. Kushal Singh Rana, the Director of Science (in the project of the Agency for Cultural Affairs to invite overseas artists/experts in conserving cultural heritage) and Mr. V.S. Raghavendra Rao, the controlling officer for the Ajanta Caves. They presented lectures on the conservation of cultural heritage in India and the current issues for the conservation of the Ajanta Caves. We reported the first mission dispatched by the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo from February, 2008 to March, and exchanged opinions on future conservation and restoration.
The Japan Consortium for International Cooperation in Cultural Heritage, whose secretariat is entrusted to the Japan Center for International Cooperation in Conservation, invited Mr. Matsuura Koichiro, the Director-General of UNESCO, to the seminar room of the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo, on August 3, for a lecture. At the beginning of the lecture, Mr. Matsuura presented a medal to the President of Consortium, Mr. Hirayama Ikuo, to commemorate his 20 years as goodwill ambassador to UNESCO. Following this ceremony, Mr. Matsuura gave a lecture titled “Future Perspectives for International Cooperation in Cultural Heritage”. He looked back on his track record as Director-General in UNESCO for the past 10 years, and stated the role that UNESCO has played in international cooperation in cultural heritage. Mr. Matsuura discussed the history until the structure of six conventions related to the cultures was established by UNESCO and the significance thereof: 1. The Hague Convention in 1954, 2. The Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, 3. The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 4. The Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, 5. The Convention on the Protection of the Intangible Cultural Heritage and 6. International Protection of Cultural Diversity in 1970. He stated that he had anticipated that Japan would make contributions in 1970 conventions, ratify the Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, and enhance bilateral aid, thereby building a truly global system based on the six-convention system. The seminar room was full of people, and the lecture was displayed on a monitor in another room for those who could not be accommodated in the seminar room. Many people, both experts and non-experts, earnestly listened to the lecture.
Networking Core Centers Project: Training Workshop in Mongolia’s Amarbayasgalant Monastery for Building Restoration
We dispatched four experts from Japan from August 18 to 29 as part of the Networking Core Centers Project in Mongolia and held a training workshop on the conservation and restoration of wooden buildings at the Amarbayasgalant Monastery in northern Selenge Province. This was the second workshop in 2009 jointly planned by the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo, and the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of Mongolia. The purpose was to contribute in capacity building for the conservation and repair techniques of wooden buildings in Mongolia.
The workshop allowed students of the Architecture Department of the Mongolian State University of Scientific Technology to learn about the preliminary surveys needed for conservation/repair and design, and basic methods of drawing a plan as based on site survey. In classroom lectures the students learned the methods of repairing and surveying the buildings of cultural heritage in Mongolia and Japan, and in field practice they measured the buildings of Amarbayasgalant Monastery.
Japanese temple/shrine master carpenter who had been dispatched by UNESCO as instructor during the repairs of the Monastery in the 1980s also participated to this training, so that the students could receive practical training on concrete methods of survey, drawing, and planning.
Although it was the first time for the students to survey a historic wooden building by actually touching it, the lecturers could see that through the training process their view about buildings was being formed by on-site experience.
In Mongolia, where there are few experts majoring in the conservation of cultural heritage buildings, we believe that the students have demonstrated the potential capacity of the future of the conservation of wooden buildings.
We surveyed the deterioration of the stone ruins of the Angkor Wat temple complex in Cambodia July 24 to 28. In the Ta Nei ruins, we used a new sandstone material similar to that used in the ruins and continued to survey the influence of microorganisms on the erosion of the stone by letting microorganisms flourish on the surface of the new material. The section of the stone with abundant lichen was coated with chemicals to try cleaning, and both positive and adverse effects were observed. We collected fundamental data concerning this research and study at the local site and carried out a construction experiment. We also assisted with the experiment in cleaning microorganisms on the surface of stone at the Western Prasat Top, where the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Nara did research, and collected data concerning the cleaning. We surveyed the deterioration of the stone ruins of the Angkor Wat temple complex in Cambodia July 24 to 28. In the Ta Nei ruins, we used a new sandstone material similar to that used in the ruins and continued to survey the influence of microorganisms on the erosion of the stone by letting microorganisms flourish on the surface of the new material. The section of the stone with abundant lichen was coated with chemicals to try cleaning, and both positive and adverse effects were observed. We collected fundamental data concerning this research and study at the local site and carried out a construction experiment. We also assisted with the experiment in cleaning microorganisms on the surface of stone at the Western Prasat Top, where the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Nara did research, and collected data concerning the cleaning.
The Thang Long Citadel in the center of Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, contains the ruins of buildings and section facilities of successive emperors, including the Ly Dynasty (11-13th century). A large amount of relics also were examined during the survey accompanying the rebuilding of the parliament house, and conservation support assistance will continue based on the agreement between the Japanese and Vietnamese governments. The emergency unearthing research has reached a tentative conclusion, and the significant issue is how to conserve and make use of the unearthed ruins and relics.
In this conference, archaeology, architecture, history, sociology, and conservation planning experts from the Japan-Vietnam Joint Expert Committee for Archaeology, Architecture, History, Sociology and Conservation visited Vietnam and discussed future cooperation with the Vietnamese members and relevant organizations. At the general meeting on July 28, representatives of the Agency for Cultural Affairs and Japanese Embassy in Vietnam also attended. We discussed both medium- and long-term plans and short-term issues, such as the millennium anniversary of the construction of the capital in Hanoi in next year and the completion of a new congress hall within three years. We agreed to provide expert support in the area of conservation of ruins and relics and arrangement and exhibit plans in addition to conventional research on the ruins’ value.
This dispatch to Vietnam was conducted as part of the research using the scientific research fund of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Hereafter, more effective assistance is anticipated in coordination with the UNESCO/Japanese Funds-in-Trust.
The 33rd World Heritage Committee was held in Seville, Spain from June 22 to 30. Discussions were held every day in temperatures of over 40ºC until 23:00 at an exhibition hall where sometimes wild birds wandered into and flew about. From Japan, participants included members of related government ministries and research organizations as well as local officials aiming to have their local heritage registered in the World Heritage List: Two members including myself attended from our Institute.
Thirteen heritage sites (2 natural and 11 cultural) were registered in the World Heritage List, and one heritage site was deleted, so the list now includes 890 heritage sites. A high regard for human-rights related heritage was seen, as seen in the registration of heritage sites related to the slave trade. Although the final decision was made by information survey, in terms of international collaboration it seemed that nominating multiple heritage sites spanning multiple countries as one heritage site was recommended, as seen in the works of Le Corbusier, including those in the National Museum of Western Art.
It was also decided to remove the Dresden Elbe Valley from the list, because immediately after it was registered, a bridge crossing the valley was planned that endangered world heritage. The bridge was not cancelled, and no specific alternative plan was proposed from Germany. This was the second time a site was deleted the list, but the first time such deletion went against the wishes of the site’s home country.
Some of the discussions scheduled for this meeting were postponed to next year due to the numerous discussions about secret voting and repetitive speeches, and it seemed that there were problems in the debate proceedings. We again recognized the importance of diplomacy in the registration of world heritage through seeing changes in discussion content a conflict between two countries that have more wide-reaching issues.