Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties Center for Conservation Science
Department of Art Research, Archives and Information Systems Japan Center for International Cooperation in Conservation
Department of Intangible Cultural Heritage


World Heritage Seminar “Process of Evaluating Nominations and Roles of the Advisory Bodies for Inscription on the World Heritage List”

Seminar in session

 Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties held the World Heritage Seminar with the theme of “Process of Evaluating Nominations and Roles of the Advisory Bodies for Inscription on the World Heritage List” at the Institute’s seminar room on January 18, 2018.
 This Seminar, held for the first time, is designed for local government officials in charge of matters related to World Heritage, and aims to provide information about the system of World Heritage and the latest trends as well as an opportunity for exchange of ideas. Focusing on the process of how the Advisory Bodies evaluate nominations, this year’s Seminar featured various speakers who discussed the actual details of what International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS), in particular, does, from different perspectives.
 First, Ms. Asuka SAKAINO from the Institute presented a report on the 41st session of the World Heritage Committee held in Krakow, Poland, in July 2017. Ms. Yoko FUTAGAMI, also from the Institute, then provided an overview of the World Heritage Seminar, and also described the evaluation process for the World Heritage List and problems with the current situation. Another speaker featured in the Seminar was Ms. Miki OKADERA, Chief Engineer of the Fukuoka Prefectural Government, who played a critical role in the preparation of the nomination file for the Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region and addressed the evaluation by the Advisory Bodies. She talked about her journey through the entire process related to the nomination of the sites, which was examined during the 41st session of the World Heritage Committee and inscribed on the list. In addition, Prof. Nobu KURODA of the University of Tsukuba shared her insights into the site mission from a professional viewpoint, based on her actual experience as one of the experts appointed by an Advisory Body to conduct a site mission in 2006. Finally, Prof. Toshiyuki KONO of Kyushu University, who was appointed president of ICOMOS in December 2017, delivered a presentation on the roles of the Advisory Bodies from the organization’s perspective.
 A total of 74 people attended the event, including officials from 29 prefectural or local government in charge of matters related to World Heritage as well as officials from the Cabinet Secretariat, the Agency for Cultural Affairs, and the Subdivision on World’s Cultural Heritage of the Council for Cultural Affairs.
 The Institute will continue to host such Seminars to communicate information obtained through the study of World Heritage and provide opportunities for people to share information.


Mission for the Project “Technical Assistance for the Protection of the Damaged Cultural Heritage in Nepal” (Part 9)

Group photo of the participants of the Mayors’ Forum
Lecture by Mr. Tatsuya KUMAMOTO, cultural strategy officer of the Agency for Cultural Affairs at the Mayors’ Forum

 As part of the above-mentioned project commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, we have continually provided technical assistance for Nepal. From December 23rd through December 29th, 2017, we dispatched five experts to Kathmandu.
 The main purpose of this dispatch is to cooperate in the “Mayors’ Forum on Conservation of Historic Settlements in Kathmandu, Kavre Valley.” The Forum was hosted by Panauti municipality, which has historic settlements inscribed on the Tentative List of World Heritage sites, and attended about 100 persons to its city hall, including mayors, deputy mayors or representatives from 16 cities located in Kathmandu, Kavre Valley and around Panauti City. Since 2016, Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties has been providing support through workshops and training seminars for professional officers (engineers) of each city holding jurisdiction over historic settlements inscribed on the World Heritage List and the Tentative List of World Heritage sites. They have already established inter-city cooperative relationships. In this Forum, the necessity of networking the municipalities holding jurisdiction over historic settlements in Kathmandu, Kavre Valley (cooperation council) was shared among the mayors by expanding the coverage further. Lectures were also delivered by Professor Yukio NISHIMURA at the University of Tokyo regarding the survey of historic settlements in Kathmandu Valley being implemented under the framework of this cooperation project, and by Mr. Tatsuya KUMAMOTO, Councilor for Cultural Strategy of the Agency for Cultural Affairs, concerning the system for preservation districts for groups of historic buildings in Japan. We succeeded in conveying the approaches to conserve historic settlements, including the current issues and inter-government cooperation, to the participants.
 To establish a system to conserve historic settlements in Kathmandu Valley, a great deal of effort is required from a variety of stakeholders. We expect that our research outcomes will be reflected more effectively and that broader technical assistance will be provided smoothly through the above-mentioned network.


Archaeological Investigation and Risk Assessment for the Conservation and Management of Ta Nei Temple in Angkor, Cambodia (Part II)

Excavated terrace structure
Survey of the current condition of the temporary supports

 The Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties has been carrying out technical cooperation with the Authority for the Protection and Management of Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap (APSARA) in order to draft a conservation and management plan for Ta Nei Temple in Cambodia. From November 28th through December 8th, 2017, we conducted an archaeological investigation and a risk assessment for the structures at Ta Nei Temple for the second time.
 The main purpose of the archaeological investigation was identifying the remains of the east approach to the temple located at its front and the remains of a structure situated on the upper surface of the embankment of the East Baray reservoir discovered during the first investigation in July. The excavation was conducted jointly with staff from APSARA and with the cooperation of the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties.
 First, we set up and excavated a trench 2 m wide from east to west and 5 m long from north to south, approximately 50 m to the east of the east gate. We discovered a hardened surface, presumably the old approach to the temple, 70 cm beneath the current ground surface. The hardened surface was composed of yellow soil covering a layer of small sandstone gravel 5 mm in size overlapped on a layer of fist-sized sandstone cobbles.
 In addition, we set up and excavated a trench 11 m long from east to west and 1 m wide from north to south on the embankment of the East Baray on the prolongation of this approach way. We found a laterite stone surface 30 cm beneath the current ground surface (Figure 1). Considering the surrounding topography and the distribution of exposed laterite, these remains can be presumed to form part of a terrace structure approximately 20 m long from east to west and 15 m wide from north to south.
 Regarding the risk mapping of the site, we examined how to renew the existing temporary supports. Wooden supports had been installed in 16 places where there were safety concerns such as potential collapse of main structures, including the central tower, the east tower, and the inner gallery. However, apart from obstructing the view of the site, these supports are in need of renovation, as in the 20 years that have passed since their installation decay of timber members and loosening of joints have become apparent. Thus, we observed and recorded the current condition of these supports, and studied improvement proposals including a change to a more durable material and the adoption of a design enabling fine adjustment.


The Fourth Mission for the Project “Networking Core Centers for the Transfer of Technology Related to Study and Protection of Archaeological and Architectural Heritage in Myanmar” (Architectural Field)

Behavior measurement by the staff of the Department of Archaeology
Hearing survey with restoration experts

 As part of the above-mentioned project commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs (re-commissioned by the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties), we dispatched experts to Myanmar for the fourth time in 2017. Two staff members from the Institute conducted structural behavior monitoring and a survey on traditional building techniques and production systems (from November 25th through December 3rd), while an outside expert tested brick materials (from December 9th through December 12th).
 In the structural behavior monitoring checked for the fourth time, no progress was found in deformation of the three monitored historical brick buildings in Bagan in particular. However, many of the resin crack gauges installed on the external surfaces of the buildings had come off due to bird and animal attacks, so they were replaced by metal disks. We also trained the local staff of the Department of Archaeology to facilitate voluntary measurements.
 Through the hearing survey with local experts who have engaged in restoration of cultural heritage for many years, we exchanged opinions on the details of traditional building techniques and production technologies surveyed in this project while confirming how to produce mortar used in past times and the materials in detail. Since we obtained all materials required for reproduction of this old mortar based on the collected information, we will analyze the mortar sampled from the structures built in the Bagan era in the past survey to compare with the reproduced mortar. We also contacted bricklayers to ask how the restoration work is implemented and their awareness of traditional building techniques and production technologies.
 At the material testing carried out in a facility of Yangon Technological University in Yangon City, we implemented bending, shearing, and compression strength tests with the prisms (four-layered brick specimens) and mortar specimens produced in the previous visit (September).
 We would like to continually accumulate useful data for better conservation and restoration of the cultural heritage structures in the Bagan area through such surveys.


Participation and Presentation at the 19th ICOMOS General Assembly and Scientific Symposium

The General Assembly

 The 19th ICOMOS General Assembly and Scientific Symposium was held in Delhi, India from 11th to 15th December. The author took part in the General Assembly and made a presentation at the Symposium.
 During the General Assembly, the triennial elections for the Executive Committee were held. Professor Toshiyuki Kono from Kyushu University was elected as president, becoming the second Asian and first Japanese president of ICOMOS since its foundation in 1965. Professor Kono has had a leading role in several initiatives engaging current issues surrounding cultural heritage from multiple perspectives, including the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, the Nara+20 Conference and the ICOMOS Project on Cultural Heritage Recovery and Reconstruction. The further development of such initiatives during his three year term is highly anticipated.
 In addition, the General Assembly officially adopted the “Principles for the Conservation of Wooden Built Heritage”, redacted by the ICOMOS International Wood Committee (IIWC). This document is an updated version of the 1999 charter by the same committee. The updated version is more detailed and concrete, while at the same time placing a renewed emphasis on the intangible aspects of wooden built heritage.
 The General Assembly also saw the adoption as one of its resolutions of a proposal redacted by the Emerging Professionals Working Group, aimed at strengthening the involvement of emerging professionals in the activities of ICOMOS.
 At the Scientific Symposium, under the title “Heritage and Democracy”, speakers from different countries presented initiatives aimed at involving actively in the conservation process the local communities and other stakeholders who maintain, use and safeguard the heritage. As an example of such initiatives in Japan, the author made a presentation on the “heritage manager” system.


The 30th General Assembly of ICCROM

Appearance of the site
Deliberation under way

 The staff members of the Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties (TNRICP) participated in the 30th General Assembly of the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Properties (ICCROM) held in Rome, Italy, from November 29th to December 1st, 2017. ICCROM was founded based upon the decision at the 9th Session of the UNESCO General Conference in 1956. It is an intergovernmental organization with its headquarters located in Rome since 1959, especially characterized by covering a wide range of cultural properties, regardless of whether they are movable or immovable. It is well known as one of the three Advisory Bodies for the World Heritage Committee and is in a cooperative relationship with TNRICP over many years especially through training activities for preservation and restoration of cultural properties made of paper and urushi lacquer.
 The General Assembly of ICCROM is held biannually. During the latest General Assembly, Dr. Webber Ndoro nominated by the Council to be a candidate for Director-General was elected to serve as the new Director-General starting January 1st, 2019. As Dr. Ndoro is the first Director-General from Africa, it is expected that ICCROM’s projects in Africa will be further activated during his term of office for a period of 6 years.
 Further, as has happened in the past, an election was also held due to the expiration of the term of office for about one-half of the Council members. As a result of the election, the Council members from Belgium, Egypt, Sudan, Switzerland, and Germany were reappointed, while new Council members were elected from China, Dominica, Lebanon, Poland, Swaziland, the U.S., Portugal, and Russia.
 In the thematic discussion, various cases were introduced under the theme of “Post-conflict Reconstruction – Recovery and Community Involvement.” From Japan, Prof. Toshiyuki KONO of Kyushu University made a presentation on reconstruction efforts of buildings in Japan after World War II.
 TNRICP intends to continue working on collecting information on the international trends regarding preservation of cultural properties and widely transmitting the activities carried out in Japan.


Special Lectures at Kanazawa University

Special lecture by Associate Fellow

 On November 24th, three Associate Fellows from the Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties (TNRICP) held special lectures for the Forum for Cultural Resource Studies at the Center for Cultural Resource Studies of Kanazawa University. TNRICP and Kanazawa University entered a cooperative research agreement in 2014 and the TNRICP’s staff members have been cooperating in training, field survey, etc. for the “Graduate Program in Cultural Resource Management”, the University’s Leading Graduate School program that develops specialists in preservation of cultural properties.
 The special lectures on the day concerned the areas of expertise of the Associate Fellows and the TNRICP’s activities, which included the following three: “An Introduction to Heritage Science” (Mariya MASUBUCHI), “Struggle to Conserve Nepalese Cultural Heritage Damaged by the Gorkha Earthquake” (Hiroki YAMADA), and “Origin and Characteristics of the Japanese Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties” (Asuka SAKAINO). Students showed keen interest in the lectures, which were followed by an active Q&A session.
 It is our pleasure that, through these lectures, we could contribute to the educational program for students aiming to become specialists in preservation of cultural properties and, at the same time, it was a valuable experience for the TNRICP’s staff members who had not often had opportunities to speak to students. We will continue maintaining and further developing exchanges with Kanazawa University and other academic organs by utilizing the expertise of our staff members.


Participation in the 21st session of the General Assembly of States Parties to the World Heritage Convention and the 12th extraordinary session of the World Heritage Committee

Deliberation under way

 On November 14th and 15th, 2017, the 21st session of the General Assembly of States Parties to the World Heritage Convention and the 12th extraordinary session of the World Heritage Committee were held at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, France. Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties (TNRICP) dispatched two staff members.
 The General Assembly of States Parties to the World Heritage Convention is held biannually during the period of the ordinary session of the General Conference of UNESCO, where the Committee members of the World Heritage Committee are elected. Although the World Heritage Convention sets the term of office for the Committee members to six years, with the aim of expanding the opportunity for many countries to become a Committee member, the Operational Guidelines invite the Committee members to consider voluntarily reducing their term of office to four years and discourage from seeking consecutive terms of office. At this General Assembly, 12 countries retired from the Committee members after serving for four years and, as a result of the secret ballot among the States Parties participating in the session, the countries of Australia, Bahrain, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, China, Guatemala, Hungary, Kyrgyzstan, Norway, Saint Christopher-Nevis, Spain, and Uganda were newly elected.
 It is the normal practice of the World Heritage Committee sessions to update the World Heritage List and to decide on the site and date for the next World Heritage Committee session. However, at the 41st session of the World Heritage Committee that was held in Krakow of Poland this year, there was no Committee member that officially expressed its interest in hosting the World Heritage Committee session for the next year. Therefore, it was decided that, concurrently with the re-election of Committee member countries at the 21st session of the General Assembly of States Parties to the World Heritage Convention, the 12th extraordinary session of the World Heritage Committee was to be held to invite a country that wishes to be a hosting country and to decide the site and chairman of the Committee session. As a result of adjustment at the extraordinary session, it was decided that the 42nd session of the World Heritage Committee would be held in Manama of Bahrain from June 24th to July 4th, 2018.
 TNRICP will continue to collect the latest information on recent trends concerning the World Heritage Convention and to disseminate it widely among parties concerned in Japan.


Evaluation Seminar 2017: Workshops on conservation of Japanese lacquerware (urushi objects)

Group photo with the contributors after the seminar

 Workshops on Conservation of Japanese Lacquerware (urushi objects) have been held since 2006, with the cooperation of Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst, Museen Köln (Museum of East Asian Art, Cologne), Germany. The workshops introduce the knowledge and techniques required for the preservation and utilization of lacquerware overseas. In these past 10 years, 179 professionals and students in total had participated from 17 countries. In order to measure the outcomes of the past workshops, this year, an evaluation seminar was held at Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties (TNRICP) on November 8th and 9th, 2017.
 Prior to holding the seminar, a questionnaire survey targeting all former participants was conducted. Contributors to the seminar were gathered from the respondents of the questionnaire, and 4 specialists and professors in conservation and restoration were invited from 4 countries (Belgium, Germany, Greece and the USA). On the first day of the seminar, the contributors presented their conservation projects and/or educational activities in conservation, which were undertaken after they participated in the workshops. The presentations provided the opportunity to share their situations and challenges on how the acquired knowledge and skills were applied to their work. The second day started with reporting the results of the questionnaire survey from TNRICP, followed by an in-depth discussion with the contributors. Issues on conservation of lacquerwares overseas and how we can support to address such issues by providing the workshops were considered.


A Mission for the Project “Technical Assistance for the Protection of the Damaged Cultural Heritage in Nepal” (Part 8)

Instructing how to use a 3D scanner to the local staff
Target installed on the external wall of the building for displacement measurement

 Staff members have ongoingly been dispatched to Nepal under the project regarding the above subject that has been entrusted by the Agency for Cultural Affairs. Field surveys were conducted by six experts from October 29th to November 10th and by two experts from November 20th to 26th.
 First, with regard to a group of buildings surrounding Aganchen Temple in Hanumandhoka Palace in Kathmandu, following the survey in June, recording current conditions and detailed measurement for preparation of a restoration scheme were performed. Concurrently with this, the structural engineer team mainly consisting of members of the Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, carried out measurements by 3D scanners. As there are some areas inside the Palace where entry of foreigners are restricted due to religious reasons, we instructed local staff members from Department of Archaeology, Government of Nepal, regarding how to use the surveying instruments and conducted the measurement works in cooperation with them. Although entry prohibition imposed a restriction on implementation of the survey, it seems to have served at the same time as a good opportunity for promoting transfer of skills.
 Next, for the interior walls that had already been surveyed, the finishing layers were peeled off and specifications as well as conditions of the underlying brick wall were examined. This process is not only necessary in order to accurately identify the damage conditions of the brick walls but also very important in order to clarify the transition of the building. Especially, for the places that may have to be torn down for reasons such as very severe damage, observation with utmost care and deliberation was needed as this survey might become the last opportunity to survey and record historical evidences.
 Further, with the aim of continuously monitoring any possible adverse effects on the buildings adjacent to the work area throughout the restoration work, we installed the targets for displacement measurement and glass plates for the fixed-point observation of wall inclination at various spots, and measured the initial values.
On the other hand, we have also worked on documentation of the excavated artifacts from the excavation research that was conducted near the Shiva Temple inside the Palace in June. Further, instructions and advices were given to the staff of Department of Archaeology on the methods of documentation.
 Two years and a half have passed since the earthquake that caused extensive damages to cultural properties as well and restoration projects led by teams of various countries have finally become active. We also would like to continue supporting the above-mentioned restoration project in which restoration specialists from Japan participate while working on transfer of skills to the local engineers.


Seminar on Environmental Management at Museums for Iranian Researchers

On-going lecture at the Institute

 In March 2017, the Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties (TNRICP) exchanged a letter of intent with the Iranian Cultural Heritage, Handicraft and Tourism Organization (ICHHTO) and the Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and Tourism (RICHT) so as to commit its cooperation in various academic fields for the protection of Iranian cultural heritage for the next five years.
During the survey conducted in Iran in October 2016, Iranian experts consulted us about serious air pollution in the capital Tehran, which resulted in damage to cultural properties. They said that even metal products displayed and housed in the National Museum of Iran were eroding.
 Thus, we invited two researchers, one from the National Museum of Iran and the other from the, RICHT for a seminar and a study tour of the Institute, expecting the improvement in exhibiting and housing environments at Iranian museums.
 We provided lectures on the museum environment and air pollution at the Institute, in addition to a study tour at the Tokyo National Museum (TNM) so as to inspect its display and storage environments and to the Great Buddha of Kamakura.
We will continually provide cooperation next year for Iranian museums, aiming at enhancement in their exhibiting and housing environments.


Seminar on “Challenges and Issues to Wall Painting Conservation” in the “Human Resource Development Project toward the Improvement of the Conservation and Management System for Mural Paintings in the Republic of Turkey”

Group photo with trainees
Survey at Tagar Church (St. Theodore Church)

 As part of the above-mentioned program commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, we provided a seminar titled “Challenges and Issues to Wall Painting Conservation” from October 30 through November 2, 2017. The seminar held at Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University attracted 30 conservators and restorers from 10 national conservation and restoration centers in Turkey.
 This seminar aims to review the existing emergency procedures, which are important in conserving mural paintings in Turkey, as well as to establish the protocol. For this first seminar, we delivered introductory lectures on “Mural Painting Techniques and Main Causes of Deterioration,” “Principles in Conservation and Restoration” and so on. An opportunity provided to exchange opinions on lectures between lecturers and trainees resulted in motivating the members to work on challenges together in a united effort.
 On the last day of the seminar, we visited Tagar Church (St. Theodore Church), where on-site training is planned from the next year, to check the conservation state of the mural painting in the church based on the knowledge learned from the lectures delivered to date. We discussed how emergency procedures should be as important steps in conserving and managing mural paintings unlike general conservation and restoration projects, eliciting a variety of views from them.
 At present, a system to conserve and manage mural paintings well has not been established fully in Turkey. It is important for us to proceed with this program in step with the Turkish government.
 Before starting this seminar program, we visited the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, and the Department of Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Properties, Faculty of Fine Arts, Gazi University to exchange opinions for enhancement of the seminar program. Four training courses will be provided by 2019. We hope to build up a practical and feasible system for experts engaged in conservation activities for cultural properties by all the members attending these seminar courses.


Workshop for the Conservation of Historic Textiles in the Republic of Armenia: “Textile Art and Conservation: Knotting the Past and the Present”

Ongoing workshop
Completion Ceremony

 The Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties organized a workshop for the conservation of historic textiles titled “Textile Art and Conservation: Knotting the Past and the Present” jointly with the Ministry of Culture in the Republic of Armenia from September 11th through 20th, 2017. This workshop was implemented based on the agreement on cooperation in the cultural heritage protection area concluded between them in 2014.
 In the Republic of Armenia, numerous organic substances such as fibers have been unearthed from archaeological sites. However, they do not have sufficient knowhow to preserve such artifacts. In addition, several religiously and historically valuable items, including ritual clothing and accessories, handed down since ancient times are stored in the Mother See of Holy Echmiadzin, which is registered as a world cultural heritage site. Among them, however, some are seriously damaged, so it is necessary to restore them in the proper manner for smooth transfer of precious cultural heritage to the succeeding generations.
 For this workshop, Dr. Mie ISHII, a visiting researcher from the Japan Center for International Cooperation in Conservation, and Ms. Midori YOKOYAMA from the NHK Culture Center Saitama were invited as lecturers. The first half of the workshop was conducted at the Scientific Research Center for Historical and Cultural Heritage while the second half took place at the Museum of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin. Thirteen trainees from seven institutions handling cultural heritage such as museums attended the seminar. This first workshop was designed to learn basic knowledge and techniques on textiles. We will continue this cooperative relationship to enable them ultimately to preserve and restore their cultural heritage by themselves.


Seminar on “Protection of Cultural Heritage and the Latest Research on the Indus Civilization in India”

Photo taken after the seminar together with Dr. Shinde

 On September 26th, the Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties and the Japanese Centre for South Asian Cultural Heritage held a seminar titled the “Protection of Cultural Heritage and the Latest Research on the Indus Civilization in India” inviting Vice-Chancellor of the Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute in India, Dr. Vasant Shinde.
 Dr. Shinde is an archaeologist representing India, who has conducted many excavations in India. At present, he is working on the Archaeological Ruins at Rakhigarhi, which were the largest city ruins in the ancient Indus Valley civilization overwhelming Moenjodaro.
For this seminar, Dr. Shinde made presentations on the “Current Situation on the Protection of Cultural Heritage in India” and “The Latest Outcomes from the Excavation of the Archaeological Ruins at Rakhigarhi.”
 Before the presentations, he toured the Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties. Deccan College is a post-graduate and research institute specialized in cultural heritage. In 2018, it will establish new departments of “Conservation and Restoration” and “Heritage Management.” For that reason, Dr. Shinde listened intently to the briefing provided by Mr. Kuchitsu, the Head of the Restoration Planning Section of the Center for Conservation Science.


Mission for the Project “Technical Assistance for the Protection of the Damaged Cultural Heritage in Nepal” (Part 7)

Investigation to check the wall surface finishing condition in Hanumandhoka Palace, Kathmandu
Ongoing workshop for the conservation of historic settlements held in Kirtipur

 As part of the above-mentioned project commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, we have continually dispatched an expert to Nepal. From September 6th through 14th, Mr. Yamada, associate fellow of this Institute, conducted an on-site survey.
 This time, he mainly surveyed the finishing specifications of the internal walls for the buildings around Aganchen Temple in Hanumandhoka Palace, Kathmandu, the restoration of which is planned under the guidance of Japanese specialized technicians, while taking photos to provide an official record. The wall surfaces of the buildings have been repeatedly painted since their construction, changing the paint materials. Therefore, the finishing layers damaged by the earthquake were carefully peeled off one by one with a working knife to investigate the history of the internal wall specifications in each room. Toward the future restoration, it is necessary to examine whether the former painted surfaces should be preserved, as well as to consider the specifications for restoration painting. The results of the investigation will be utilized as information for making such decisions, giving us important clues to clarify the history of the buildings repeatedly rebuilt.
 On the other hand, on September 10th, he attended the workshop for the preservation of historic settlements in the Kathmandu Valley hosted by Kirtipur Municipality that has historic settlements inscribed on the World Heritage Tentative List, and suggested the items that require urgent attention for the conservation of historic settlements. Responding to this suggestion, the Mayor of Kirtipur, local administrative staff having jurisdiction over each historic settlement, and personnel from the Department of Archaeology of the national government held enthusiastic discussions with one another. Although there are still a lot of tasks to be completed before a proper system for conservation of historic settlements can be established, this workshop allowed the members to anticipate its realization.


International Course on Conservation of Japanese Paper 2017

Practical session

 The International Course on Conservation of Japanese Paper was run from August 28th to September 15th, 2017. This course has been jointly organised by the Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties (TNRICP) and the International Centre for the Study of Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) since 1992. It is aimed at contributing to the protection of cultural property outside Japan by disseminating the knowledge and techniques of conservation and restoration of paper cultural property in Japan to participants from around the world. This year, 10 specialists in conservation from 9 countries (Argentina, Australia, China, Czech Republic, Greece, Israel, Latvia, the Philippines and the USA) were selected as participants among 79 applications from 38 countries.
 The course was composed of lectures, practical sessions and excursions. The lectures covered protection systems of both tangible and intangible cultural property in Japan, basic insights into Japanese paper, traditional conservation materials and tools. The practical sessions were led by instructors from a certified group holding the Selected Conservation Techniques on “Restoration Techniques of Mounting.” The participants gained experience of restoration work of paper cultural property from cleaning it to mounting it to a handscroll. Japanese-style bookbinding, and handling of folding screens and hanging scrolls were also included in the sessions. The excursion to the cities of Nagoya, Mino, and Kyoto, arranged in the middle of the course, offered an opportunity to see folding screens and sliding doors in historic buildings, the Japanese papermaking (Honminoshi) which is designated as an Important Intangible Cultural Property of Japan, a traditional restoration studio, and so forth. On the last day, the present situation and issues with a focus on paper cultural property in each country such as conservation materials and environmental control were discussed.
 The participants could acquire a deeper understanding not only on conservation materials and tools used in Japan but also conservation approaches and techniques using Japanese paper throughout this course. We hope that the knowledge and techniques they gained in the course will be applied to conservation and restoration of cultural property overseas.

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The Third Mission for the Project “Networking Core Centers for the Transfer of Technology Related to Study and Protection of Archaeological and Architectural Heritage in Myanmar” (Architectural Field)

Crack Gauge Damaged by Squirrels and Installation of Crack Disk
Technical Survey
Performance by Local Bricklayer
Ongoing Lecture
Manufacture of Brick Specimens

 As part of the above-mentioned project commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs (re-commissioned by the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties), we conducted the third on-site survey for 2017 (from September 17th through October 2nd) by dispatching six members, including three outside experts. This time we conducted structural behavior monitoring, surveys on traditional building and production techniques, material experiments, and so forth.
 In the structural behavior monitoring checked for the third time, no progress was found in deformation of the three monitored buildings in particular. However, part of the crack gauge had come off due to damage by birds or animals, and therefore, continual monitoring could not be performed at some of the measuring points. Therefore, we took measures according to the on-site situation by covering crack gauges or switching to crack disks.
 The heritage building has various values: not only its appearance but also the techniques used for its construction. Regrettably, in the conventional restoration work in Bagan, people were scarcely aware of the conservation or reproduction of original techniques. And also scarce studies on such techniques are precious few. Thus, for this survey, we checked the bricklaying techniques in 20 buildings together with experts in building structure and conservation/repair. We also collected information on production techniques of traditional buildings through interviews and demonstrations with local bricklayers involved in repair.
 As part of our technical assistance, we delivered lectures at the Bagan Branch of the Department of Archaeology and National Museums, the Ministry of Religious Affairs and Culture in Myanmar for its 13 staff members, including the Deputy Director of the Bagan Branch, on September 20th. The three lectures were given in an omnibus manner: “Seismic damage of masonry cultural heritage in Asian countries” (Masahiko TOMODA, Head of the Conservation Design Section of the Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties); “Surveys for Structural Analysis of Brick Cultural Heritage Buildings and Their Cases” (Professor Mikio KOSHIHARA, the University of Tokyo); and ”Conservation and Repair Work for Former Winery Facilities of Chateau Kamiya” (Yasuo NAKAUCHI, Adviser, the Japanese Association for Conservation of Architectural Monuments). The audience showed much interest in reinforcement materials and techniques in particular.
 On the other hand, in Yangon, we conducted compressive strength tests for single bricks (14 pieces) from September 23rd through October 1st in cooperation with the Myanmar Engineering Society (MES) and Yangon Technological University (Y1TU). In addition, we manufactured prisms (four-layered brick specimens) using three types of mortar that differed in materials and mix proportions based on the information obtained from the production technique survey in Bagan (nine in each type), cylindrical mortar specimens (three in each type), and square mortar specimens (three in each type). We are planning to conduct strength tests for these specimens about two months later.
 We hope to accumulate more data useful for conservation and repair of the cultural heritage buildings in the Bagan area through such surveys and experiments.


Holding “The Workshops on Conservation of Japanese Textile” in Taipei

Practical work for understanding the structure of kimono using a paper model
Practical work of applying a silk fabric support

 As part of the joint research with Taiwan Normal University (NTNU), “The Workshops on Conservation of Japanese Textile” were held jointly in the Research Center for Conservation of Cultural Relics, NTNU from August 9th to 18th, 2017 for the purpose of preservation and utilization of Japanese textiles overseas. The workshops that consisted of the Basic workshop “Cultural Properties of Textile in Japan” and the Advanced workshop “Conservation of Japanese Textile”, were conducted by the researchers and restorers specialized in Japanese textile from Japan and Taiwan. The textile specialists such as conservators from Laos, the Philippines, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and the U.S.A. took part in the workshops.
 The Basic workshop was held from August 9th to 11th, attended by 10 participants and 2 observers. In the workshop, basic knowledge of Japanese textile was introduced through the lectures and practical sessions of the relevant protection system, materials such as fiber and thread, techniques such as weaving and dyeing, structure and history of kimono, and so forth. The Advanced workshop was held from August 14th to 18th, attended by 6 participants and 3 observers. This workshop was more practical. It comprised of the display and folding method of kimono, chemical analysis, and practice on application of support silk fabric. Moreover, information regarding the conservation of textile such as technical ideas and culture in each country were exchanged in time for the discussion.
 With the aim of contributing to the protection of Japanese textiles overseas, similar workshops will be implemented by introducing not only textile objects as tangible cultural properties, but also intangible cultural properties such as techniques of manufacture and restoration.


Conservation and Restoration of the Outer Walls of the Brick Temples in Bagan, Myanmar

Restoration of the quake-damaged outer wall
Meeting at the Bagan Branch, Department of Archaeology and National Museums, Ministry of Religious Affairs and Culture of Myanmar

 From July 6 to 31, 2017, conservation and restoration work was carried out on the outer walls of Me-taw-ya (No. 1205) temple on the Bagan Archaeological Site in Myanmar with the main objective of protecting the murals from rain damage. Based on the results of scientific analysis and physical testing of the various materials composing the temple, which had been conducted since FY2016, we re-assessed the problematic restoration materials and methods currently used. We then worked to restore the places most damaged by last year’s earthquake, and successfully completed our task with consideration given to compatibility between old and new materials.
 On the request of the Myanmar Ministry of Religious Affairs and Culture, we also made a presentation at the 10th Expert Meeting on Earthquake Damage to the Bagan Archaeological Site held on July 27, giving a report on our activities to date. This resulted in our work being highly commended for its utility in the context of today’s urgent need for restoration initiatives for the Bagan Site, and we were asked to further intensify our cooperation going forward.
 In part to respond to these requests, we plan to continue with our consistent program of conservation and restoration, as well as to communicate repeatedly with local experts in order to construct conservation and restoration policies suited to the Bagan Archaeological Site.


Workshops on Paper and Silk for the Conservation of Japanese Art Objects in Berlin, Germany

Explanation of Japanese paper
Practical work to understand the structure of a folding screen

 These workshops are held annually for the purpose of preservation and utilization of Japanese art objects such as paintings and calligraphic works overseas, and the promotion of understanding of these objects. In this year, the basic course “Japanese Paper and Silk Cultural Properties” was conducted from July 5th to 7th, 2017 and the advanced course “Restoration of Japanese Folding Screens” from the 10th to 14th at the Asian Art Museum, National Museums in Berlin (Museum für Asiatische Kunst, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin) with the support of the Asian Art Museum and Museum of Technology (Deutsches Technikmuseum).
 In the basic course, 11 restorers, conservators and students from seven countries participated. This course included lectures on the materials used for the cultural properties, such as adhesives, mineral pigments and paper. Practical works on painting on silk, Chinese ink painting and handling hanging scrolls were also conducted. In the advanced course, instructors from a certificated group holding the Selected Conservation Techniques “restoration techniques for mounts” gave practical works and lectures to nine restorers from six countries. This course aimed to provide a method in which Japanese folding screens are conserved using the traditional technique. The participants could understand the structure and functions of a folding screen by accomplishing processes from the underlying work to the application of the final surface paper.
 Discussions were held in both courses actively. In addition to a question and answer session, opinions about restoration and applications of Japanese techniques and materials were exchanged.
 Similar projects will be implemented with the aim of contribution of the preservation and utilization of Japan’s tangible and intangible cultural properties overseas by sharing information about conservation materials and techniques in Japan with conservators overseas.


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