|■Tokyo National Research
Institute for Cultural Properties
||■Center for Conservation
|■Department of Art Research,
Archives and Information Systems
||■Japan Center for
International Cooperation in Conservation
|■Department of Intangible
Inviting experts involved in the preservation and restoration of archeological and architectural heritage from five countries in Southeast Asia, the above seminar was held at our seminar room on November 13. After the experts presented their diverse technical challenges over the preservation of historical monuments or sites s in their countries, we exchanged opinions on the possibilities of new collaboration. Indonesia and Thailand, which have many practical cases on the maintenance of monuments and sites , and Cambodia, Vietnam and Myanmar, which have been introducing new technologies particularly in recent years, presented their concrete cases. This was a good opportunity for us to get a wide overview of the current state of protecting cultural properties in historical sites and monuments, museums, and so forth.
We invited Mr. Hubertus Sadirin (Advisory Expert Board on Cultural Property for the Governor of Local Government of DKI ) from Indonesia, Mr. Vasu Poshyanandana (Senior Architect of the Office of Architecture, Fine Arts Department, Ministry of Culture and Secretary-General of ICOMOS Thailand) from Thailand, Mr. An Sopheap (Head of Office of Archeology, Department of Conservation of Monuments inside Angkor Park and Archaeology Preventive, APSARA National Authority) from Cambodia, Ms. Le Thi Lien (Senior Researcher of the Institute of Archaeology of the Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences) from Vietnam, and Mr. Thein Lwin (Deputy Director General of Department of Archaeology and National Museum, Ministry of Culture) from Myanmar.
At the comprehensive discussion, active dialogue was undertaken over how to preserve unearthed remnants of ancient buildings, consistency between new and old materials used for restoration, quake-resistant measures for structures, balance between tangible and intangible values in conservation, issues on management systems and HR, etc. These tropical or semitropical countries have many similarities not only in their climatic environments, but also in challenges on factors of and countermeasures to material deterioration. This meeting worked as a good opportunity for them to reconfirm the continual information sharing and cooperation toward the further collaboration within and outside the region. Communicating with these countries closely, we would like to clarify their support needs and consider more effective approaches for cooperation.
Exchange of views on difference in carpenter’s tools (Takenaka Carpentry Tools Museum)
Experience of Hiwadabuki thatching technique (Kyoto city architecture conservation technique training center)
As part of the Networking Core Centers for International Cooperation in the Conservation of the Cultural Heritage Project, “Protection of Cultural Heritage in Myanmar,” commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, four specialists from the Department of Archaeology and National Museum of Ministry of Culture, Myanmar, were invited to Japan and a training session on cultural heritage conservation of wooden structures was held from July 29 to August 6. This program is one of a series of training that has been continued in Myanmar since fiscal 2013, and is intended to have trainees understand in detail the practices of immovable cultural property conservation and restoration in Japan. In addition to lectures on such topics as the history of conservation and restoration systems, survey recording methods, measures against insect damage, anti-seismic measures and carpenter’s tools, tours to restoration work sites, practice of a trail survey and an exchange of views with restorers were conducted to help trainees expand their knowledge about the conservation and restoration of wooden structures. The program also provided an opportunity to discuss together about methods that could be applied in Myanmar and other issues.
During their short stay, the trainees toured many restoration work sites as well as cultural heritage sites such as museums, historic parks, and groups of traditional buildings. On the last day of the training session, each trainee made a presentation of the results of the training one by one. Despite such a tight schedule, trainees ardently learned and absorbed many things. While feeling differences in climates or architectural cultures between both countries, trainees apparently became aware of underlying cultural commonalities in many scenes. In order to make use of the training for the future of the protection of their own country’s cultural heritages, trainees enthusiastically raised and asked various questions in each site, which apparently gave a strong impression to Japanese engineers and specialists. Finally, we appreciate the Japanese Association for the Conservation of Architectural Monuments, the Kyoto Prefectural Board of Education’s Cultural Properties Division, the Takenaka Carpentry Tools Museum as well as all the organizations and parties involved for their cooperation in this program and training session.
Photographing from a high altitude by remote shutter operation using a digital camera’s Wifi function and iPad.
Data processing using open-sourced software programs
Among the monuments of Angkor, many of which have been restored by various methods thanks to international cooperation, Ta Nei temple has never undergone full-scale restoration in the past and quietly remains unchanged as it was in a dense forest. In order to ensure an adequate conservation of the monument while also paying attention to the aspect of utilizing it for tourism without undermining its value, the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo, continues to provide technical assistance to APSARA (Authority for the Protection and Management of Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap) to draft a plan for the conservation and management project.
As for the three-dimensional photographic measurement at the remains using SfM (Structure from Motion), which began last year, we have been testing it to establish a method to keep records of the remains’ current conditions, which can be implemented by local staff members as cheap and easy as possible. In this mission conducted from May 27 to June 2, we photographed the remains in the inner side of the inside gallery and implemented the total station measurement of orientation points together with staff from APSARA. Next, we created a three-dimensional model of the ruin covering the inner side of the inside gallery by processing the obtained data using open-sourced software programs (Visual_SfM、SfM georef、Meshlab). While we are currently examining the accuracy of the model, if the method is established, it is expected to be applied not only to other monuments of Angkor but also to ones in other developing countries as a recording method that does not require special equipment or budgets.
Meanwhile, the outline and progress situation of the project were reported at the 24th technical session of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of Angkor held on June 4 and 5 at the APSARA headquarters office. The collection of basic data including those necessary to create the model of the entire site will be completed within this fiscal year.
Rinzin Penjore, Director of the Department of Culture, Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs of Bhutan (l.) and KAMEI Nobuo, Director General of the Institute (r.),Workshop attendees (at the grounds of the National Library)
Workshop attendees (at the grounds of the National Library)
A final mission was sent to Bhutan from December 20 to 24 to conclude the Networking Core Centers Project for the Conservation of Traditional Buildings in the Kingdom of Bhutan. This project started in 2012 commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, Japan. A workshop was jointly organized with the Department of Culture, Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs of the Kingdom of Bhutan to sum up the project. The project sought to determine how to properly conserve traditional rammed earth buildings such as houses and to improve their ability to withstand earthquakes. Results of the studies of construction technique and structure of the buildings over the last 3 years were presented by both Bhutanese and Japanese members. The personnel involved also discussed prospects for future works that the Bhutanese side need to undertake. The workshop was co-chaired by the Director of the Department of Culture (the direct counterpart in this project) and the Director General of the Institute. The workshop was attended by relevant personnel from the Division for Conservation of Heritage Sites of the Department of Culture as well as personnel from the Department of Disaster Management of the Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs, the Department of Engineering Services of the Ministry of Works and Human Settlement, the Bhutan Standards Bureau, and the National Library of Bhutan.
The architectural study team conducted field surveys of about 60 houses and temples as well as ruins, abandoned villages, and new rammed earth building sites. Information on traditional construction techniques (including techniques to reinforce structures) was compiled based on the findings of those surveys and interviews with craftsmen. Standardized format for investigation and tentative building typology were reported during the workshop. The structural study team conducted materials tests, micro-tremors measurement and destructive load tests to overcome structural vulnerabilities stemming from earthquake damage. Based on the results, basic techniques for assessment of structural strength and simulations of structural analysis were presented. In addition, a medium to long-term road map was proposed to see what steps could be taken to continue those surveys in the future and also if those surveys would lead to the formulation of guidelines to determine structural stability. In the meantime, existing buildings are being lost. Methods of preserving those buildings were also discussed.
These joint surveys over the past 3 years are merely the prelude to understanding traditional construction techniques in Bhutan, and Bhutan has a long way to go in assessing the historical value of those structures and establishing techniques to properly preserving them. Bhutan is faced with the loss of its tangible and intangible cultural heritage due to natural disasters such as earthquakes and torrential rains as well as a mounting wave of urbanization. We hope Japan is able to assist Bhutan in safeguarding its cultural heritage, and to continue assisting the people of Bhutan in the future as well.
A trainee dedicating a roof tile (the Great Buddha Hall of Todaiji Temple)
An explanation of conservation work on-site (Himeji Castle)
Practice making a rubbing (Amanosan Kongoji Temple)
A program for training in conservation of historical wooden buildings has been conducted since last year pursuant to the Networking Core Centers Project for Protection of Cultural Heritage in Myanmar, commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, Japan. As part of the program, personnel were invited to attend training in Japan for the first time. Among the participants in ongoing field training in Myanmar, 3 personnel from the Department of Archaeology and National Museum (DoA), Ministry of Culture of Myanmar visited Japan from August 21 to 30. The primary goal of this training session was to further explain to trainees the concepts behind conservation of historical buildings in Japan and the realities of conservation projects. In addition to receiving classroom lectures on basic topics, trainees visited sites in the Kansai region and elsewhere where historical buildings were under restoration work. Trainees heard from specialists who managed restoration work and they learned work procedures as well as specific techniques for surveys and conservation planning.
Sights such as first glimpses of sites where major conservation efforts were underway and methodically arranged building components made a substantial impact on trainees. Trainees learned a number of things by enthusiastically asking questions on-site and through practice. Trainees showed considerable interest in techniques to meticulously survey and document buildings during conservation work and in the careful work done by carpenters. Clearly, the techniques used in Japan cannot be immediately adopted in Myanmar. However, this training session was a valuable experience for the trainees since it encouraged them to think about how they would preserve and pass on their own cultural heritage in the future. These trainees, after all, will be responsible for conservation of historical wooden buildings in Myanmar. Plans are to conduct additional cooperative projects to help protect the cultural heritage of Myanmar.
Staff of the ASPARA Authority processing data
3D model produced using SfM. Shown is the west face of the inner gallery at the Ta Nei Temple
A 3D photogrammetry of the Ta Nei Temple was conducted with staff of the Authority for the Protection and Management of Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap (ASPARA Authority) from July 21 to 30. The survey was conducted as part of joint research and collaboration with the ASPARA Authority, which is responsible for conserving and managing the Angkor Complex. The goal of the joint research and collaboration is to establish a way to provide an elevation view and document scattered stones around the site based on a 3D photographic survey. This technical support will facilitate basic documentation of theTa Nei Temple, which the ASPARA Authority plans to start conserving over the next few years.
3D survey techniques are constantly advancing. The current survey attempted a technique known as Structure from Motion (SfM). This technique is noteworthy since it is relatively simple and does not require expensive equipment or software. The site is extensively photographed with a simple camera, like that found in a smartphone, and the image data are processed using open-source software, yielding a 3D model of the site. A model is obtained after a series of steps and its precision has to be further verified, but its level is sufficient to allow its use as basic data.
In the future, several problems will still need to be resolved in order for the resulting model to be put to practical use as Cambodian management staff use this technique to document the entire temple. Developing countries like Cambodia have difficulty arranging special budgets and equipment for site conservation, but SfM should emerge as a way for local staff to document the state of a site as part of their everyday operations.
The fashion show underway
On May 8, an event entitled “Starting with the Days of the Nara Palace: A Fashion Show of Asuka & Tempyo Attire” took place in the Heiseikan of the Tokyo National Museum (organizers: Asuka Mura, the Agency for Cultural Affairs, Japan, the Tokyo National Museum, the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo, the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, and Asahi Shimbun, Collaborator: the Nakagawa Laboratory of the Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering of Waseda University). The event was related to a special exhibit of Wall Paintings from the Kitora Tumuli that took place at the Tokyo National Museum from April 22 to May 18, 2014. Models for the event included 13 members of the staff of the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo. This valuable experience of wearing ancient handmade attire was a first. All of the clothing was made by hand by ancient attire researcher YAMAGUCHI Chiyoko (who arranged the Tempyo attire). The historical setting of the Imperial Palace in Nara in year 3 of the Wadou era (710) was splendidly recreated thanks to planning and staging by SUGIYAMA Hiroshi, Head of the Department of Planning and Coordination of the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties.
Acting as a model, I experienced joyous anticipation and elation as I joined my fellow models in setting the stage while dreaming of the ancient world. As I wore beautiful clothes, had my hair coiffured, and adorned myself with numerous accessories, I was able to envision how people from the long-gone Imperial court conducted themselves. However, my imagination had its limits and I was reminded again of the difficulty of studying history. The experience was visceral. I would like to express my appreciation to everyone involved for all of their hard work. I hope to tackle history with a renewed interest.
Basic lecture on protecting cultural properties
Surveying the Bagaya Monastery in Innwa
As part of the Networking Core Centers for International Cooperation on Conservation of Cultural Heritage Project commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, Japan, the first session of training in conservation of wooden architecture took place in Mandalay and Innwa from February 4th to 12th. The training focused on wooden monastery buildings from the Konbaung Dynasty since these traditional buildings have yet to be adequately safeguarded in Myanmar. Training covered topics germane to proper conservation of those buildings, such as basic surveys, recording and sketching the building, and formulation of conservation management and restoration plans. Training is intended for young to mid-career staff of the Department of Archaeology and National Museum of the Ministry of Culture, Myanmar, and plans are to conduct 5 training sessions in total over a period of 3 years. The first training session had 11 trainees. After receiving basic lectures on architectural history, conservation history, and systems of protecting cultural properties, the trainees sketched and surveyed the layout of the Bagaya Monastery in Innwa as preliminary steps towards a building survey.
Japan has amassed a wealth of expertise and experience conserving and restoring historic wooden structures, but Myanmar’s traditional building techniques and patterns have not been adequately studied. Many questions remain. How were ancient buildings designed and built and systems of measurement were used? With these questions in mind, the training sessions seek to historically reappraise wooden architecture in Myanmar through surveys conducted with the trainees. The trainees are highly motivated, and they should gain needed expertise and insight through future training sessions.
Seminar on the Current Situationand Issues Concerning the Protection of Cultural Heritage in Myanmar
Imashirozuka Tomb Park
Three personnel from the Department of Archaeology and National Museum of the Ministry of Culture, Myanmar were invited to visit Japan from February 17 to 22. On the 18th, a seminar was held at the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo to follow-up on last year’s Seminar on the Current Situation of and Issues Concerning the Protection of Cultural Heritage in Myanmar. In addition, the visitors from Myanmar viewed different categories of cultural heritage in the Kanto and Kansai regions (such as buildings, artworks and handicrafts, historic sites, and districts for preservation of important traditional buildings). The visitors also heard from and talked with staff who are in charge of conservation and management of each site.
During the Seminar, 3 representatives from Myanmar delivered presentations primarily on efforts to safeguard cultural heritage that they were involved in. The representatives described the progress of excavations and the state of site conservation in ancient Pyu cities, plans for site management of Beikthano-Myo and public education campaigns, and restoration and repair work at the Bagaya Monastery in Innwa, and the representatives also furnished a number of photographs. Representing Japan were 3 experts from the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo and Nara. The Japanese experts described the progress of cooperative projects between Japan and Myanmar and prospects for the future. The seminar also featured an active question-and-answer session.
During their tour of cultural heritage facilities in Japan, the representatives from Myanmar visited the Tokyo National Museum, the Archaeological Park of Otsuka and Saikachido, the Yokohama History Museum, Ninna-ji Temple, Horyu-ji Temple, the Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, the Site of Heijo Palace, the Miyama District for Preservation of Important Traditional Buildings in the City of Nantan, Kyoto Prefecture, the Imashirozuka Tomb and Museum of Ancient History, and Remains of the Shin-ike Haniwa (clay figure) Production Site. The visitors gained a better understanding of the current safeguarding of Japan’s cultural heritage.
Total Station survey of control points for photogrammetry
Using software to create a 3D photo model
The 4th Training Course in Architectural Surveying at the temple of Ta Nei in Angkor, Cambodia was conducted over about a week from January 17th to 24th. This program began last year, and the 4th training course marks the final course. Trainees were 9 Cambodian young staff members specializing in architecture or archeology from the Authority for the Protection and Management of Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap (ASPARA), the National Authority for Preah Vihear (NAPV), and JAPAN-APSARA Safeguarding Angkor (JASA, a team combining the Japanese Government Team for Safeguarding Angkor and the ASPARA Authority).
The topics of the last course were surveys of large trees on the site and photogrammetry. Trainees completed the site plan that had been started during the 1st course, as well as learned new techniques to record various elements of the site as preparation for future site management including creation of risk maps of this site. Using Total Station and dedicated software for photogrammetry to create 3D photo records of walls with carvings and scattered stones. Through these works, we also discussed the topic of how to use this kind of information to manage the site in the future. On the final day of the course, each trainee gave a presentation on his or her findings, and trainees smiled as they received certificates for completing the 2 years program.
Ta Nei is one of the important sites in Angkor that has received little intervention until now, and many issues remain regarding the site management. This program has imparted basic survey skills to Cambodian staff managing the site and it represents the first step in helping them preserve the site for future generations. The training courses in architectural surveying are now finished, but plans are to continue providing technical assistance and to continue research exchanges.
A topographical survey underway at the temple site
Combining a contour map and a survey map of architectural remains
The 3rd training course in architectural surveying was conducted over a 2 week-period from July 22 to August 2 at the temple of Ta Nei at Angkor in Cambodia. This training is planning for younger staff members of the Authority for the Protection and Management of Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap (ASPARA), the National Authority for Preah Vihear (NAPV), and JAPAN-APSARA Safeguarding Angkor (JASA, a team combining the Japanese Government Team for Safeguarding Angkor and the ASPARA), which are all responsible for managing ancient monuments in the Kingdom of Cambodia. The participants are specialists in architecture and archaeology, and in this 3rd course nine trainees including 1 new staff participated.
As we finished recording the temple layout within the first and second enclosure walls by the previous courses, the 3rd course began with a traverse survey for making reference points to measure architectural remains and topography within the third enclosure wall. By using these points as reference also for a topographical survey that included the third enclosure wall with the east and west gopuras and the moat outside of the second enclosure wall. The trainees were divided into 2 groups to conduct the survey, and in the end, all of them could create a contour map and a 3D model of the area within the third enclosure wall by using these measuring data. The trainees appeared to be highly motivated to take on challenges: as the trainees who had attended the previous courses had almost mastered basic steps in surveying architectural remains and plotting, they could teach to their fellow trainees even when they encountered something they did not know. In addition, on the final day of the course, all of the trainees gave presentations on the topic of surveying and drawing of architectural remains for the conservation, describing their own part in site work and exchanging opinions on the prospects for the future.
This training course is not simply to provide technical methods in archaeological surveying from Japan to Cambodia. Rather, the course has also steadily encouraged exchanges among Cambodian trainees themselves. We continue the cooperative projects with the hope that younger personnel who will be responsible for the future of sites in Cambodia grow through such efforts.
Extracting core samples from a test specimen made of rammed earth
Interview with craftsmen at Yuta Goempa
Commissioned by the Agency for Cultural Affairs, Japan, this project aims to understand and preserve construction techniques used to build traditional buildings in Bhutan in particularly rammed earth houses and temples, and to assess and improve their earthquake-proofing and safety. The project began last year with the Division for Conservation of Heritage Sites, Department of Culture, Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs, Bhutan, as a counterpart, with whom the Japanese experts have jointly studied and tested on building techniques, structures and materials undertaking in such a way research exchanges and human resource development.
The first field survey this year was conducted from June 21 to July 3 involving 9 experts from Japan. Test specimens of rammed earth for materials strength tests were prepared using traditional construction techniques, as well as construction studies and micro-tremors measurement were conducted at several temples, houses and ruins in the districts of Thimphu, Wangdue Phodrang and Paro. In addition, the experts visited a rammed earth temple damaged by the last earthquake being restored, and sites where rammed earth residences are being constructed. Through interviews with craftsmen, the experts gathered information on the current state of restoration of heritage buildings and construction techniques.
Over the past few years, such traditional buildings have rapidly disappeared from the capital of Thimphu. However, the survey also revealed that some Bhutanese wish to somehow pass on the techniques they have inherited from their forefathers to future generations. We hope to continue providing technical support and conducting personnel exchanges so that Bhutan can properly preserve those techniques, which represent part of the country’s cultural heritage.
Seminat on conservation of stone monuments in Angkor
Second measurement training at the Ta Nei site
Since 2001, the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo has jointly conducted studies and research on conservation of cultural properties made of stone, with its main field being the Ta Nei site in Angkor, Cambodia, together with the Authority for the Protection and Management of Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap (APSARA). This seminar, with the participation of experts from Japan, Cambodia, Italy, and South Korea who had taken part in these studies, included presentations on subjects such as taxonomical research on lichens, quantitative and qualitative research on physical changes in stone materials, and research on the relationship between the environment and living organisms, as an overview of research that had been conducted up to that point to monitor and control the living organisms that flourish on stone surfaces. It also featured exchange of opinions on improving site conservation in the future.
Also, the second training onarchitectural measurementwas held at the Ta Nei site from January 10 to 18. A total of 11 trainees, including two new participants from the APSARA, split into three teams to check the plans prepared in the first training in July of last year and to continue the measurement work using total stations, largely completing the plan of the central part of thetemple.
Continuation of research cooperation, including transfer of technology and human-resources development are planned, while further studying how the results of these efforts can be put to use in conservation of Angkorsites.
Observations of a rammed earth wall using a soil color chart
Measurement of micro-tremors at a rammed earth temple in the City of Thimphu
For the second time this year, experts from Japan were dispatched to the Kingdom of Bhutan from November 21 to December 2 in order to survey on the conservation of rammed earth buildings in the country within the framework of the Networking Core Centers for International Cooperation in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage Project commissioned by the Agency of Cultural Affairs. The survey was conducted jointly with Bhutanese counterparts from the Division for Cultural Properties, Department of Culture, Ministry of Home and Cultural Affairs. Experts split into 2 groups to do the following works in the capital Thimphu and its suburbs:
Architectural survey group: In order to reveal the traditional techniques of rammed earth construction, multiple craftsmen were interviewed, and reinforce techniques for damaged houses, temples, and ruins with rammed earth structures were inspected and surveyed.
Structural survey group: In order to quantitatively assess the performance of structures with rammed earth walls, specimens that Bhutanese personnel had prepared ahead of time were subjected to compressive strength testing. Micro-tremors were also measured at 2 small temple buildings of rammed earth structure. Basic data were obtained for analysis of the structural properties of those buildings.
In addition to the current surveys, a workshop was conducted with Bhutanese counterparts in order to share the results of previous surveys (including prior cooperative projects involving Japanese personnel), as well as to introduce Japanese experiences for the conservation of traditional houses in Japan.
Through such activities, the Core Centers Project seeks to explore prospects for appropriate conservation of traditional buildings and continuation of building techniques and deal with the issue of improved safety in the event of an earthquake. The project also seeks to train local personnel who are responsible for preserving cultural heritage. Hopes are to further enhance cooperation by transferring basic techniques through architectural surveys and structural analysis to eager Bhutanese personnel.
Hands-on training for how to work with a total station
State of the measurement survey
An architectural survey training course began at the Ta Nei temple in Angkor as a new human resource development project based on a cooperation agreement with the Cambodian government’s Authority for the Protection and Management of Angkor and the Region of Siem Reap (ASPARA). This training course provides a combination of classroom lectures and field practices, with the goal of learning by the Cambodian staffs the basic sequence of steps for surveying architectural remains using GPS and a total station and CAD drawing. This was the first of four planned training courses through the next fiscal year. Twelve young and core staff members, who specialize in architecture and archeology, from the ASPARA, the Preah Vihear National Authority and the JASA team participated in the training, which took place for five days from July 30 through August 3. The trainees were all enthusiastically making an effort to learn the skills. The current goal is to complete an up-to-date planimetric map of the entire temple complex.
The older part of Padang affected by the earthquakes
Workshop on recovery process in Padang
Visit to a disaster area in Kesennuma, Miyagi Prefecture
The historical district of the City of Padang, West Sumatra was seriously damaged by earthquakes occurring off the coast of West Sumatra in September 2009. Since November of that year, the National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, Tokyo, has continued to support the recovery process of damaged cultural heritage sites in the district. This year, field studies were undertaken by Japanese experts, and a local workshop focusing on the topics of earthquake-resistant construction, disaster countermeasures, and risk management was conducted from January 4th to 13th, 2012 within the framework of emergency programs by the Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs. Afterwards, Indonesian experts were invited to Japan from January 19th to 25th. Proposed restoration efforts are based on Japan’s own experiences following the March 11th, 2011 disaster in Tohoku.
At the workshop, examples of efforts to restore damaged cultural heritage sites in Japan were presented, and earthquake countermeasures and townscape preservation of the the historical district were discussed on-site. In addition to surveys of restoration of damaged historical buildings and townscapes, field studies proposed seismic retrofits based on basic structural surveys and those studies examined the architecture of traditional townhouses. Indonesian experts who were invited to Japan were able to talk with personnel actively working on restoration and earthquake countermeasures on-site in affected areas like Tohoku. This series of programs helped to clarify issues with reconstruction of damaged cultural heritage sites in Padang two years after the earthquakes. Further cooperation is needed for more specific action plans so that valuable historical heritage sites are not lost.