As a part of the Cross-Disciplinary Study of Art Materials and Techniques, a research project being undertaken by the Department of Research Programming, a hollow dry lacquer Figure of a Standing Bodhisattva (private collection in Tokyo) was investigated on Thursday, June 21. In hollow dry lacquer technique used for a Buddha statue, a clay mold is first made. Then hemp cloth is pasted to the surface of the mold after which the clay is removed from the mold to make a hollow. Finally an over-layering of lacquer stiffened with plant fibers is applied to the surface of the hemp cloth. As is already known, the manufacture of Buddha statues using this technique was popular in Japan during the Tempyo period (8th century), but there are very few existing examples today. In such a circumstance, this Bodhisattva figure is an example whose existence was not known until recently Although there are traces of gold foil applied with lacquer on its surface, which is thought to have been done after the figure was made, and traces of repair on damaged parts, the condition of its preservation is comparatively good. It is also to be noted that the figure has been transmitted in an almost complete form. From the expression of the precious chignon and the form of the face, it appears that the figure was manufactured either at the end of the 8th century or the beginning of the 9th century. However, as is the case with the investigation of hollow dry lacquer figures, it is true that a visual observation of the surface does not provide enough information as to how many layers of hemp cloth had been applied or to what degree restoration and later additions had been made. We hope to conduct X-ray photography of this figure, with the permission of the owner, in order to study the materials and techniques used so that we may better understand it.
|■Tokyo National Research Institute for Cultural Properties||■Center for Conservation Science|
|■Department of Art Research, Archives and Information Systems||■Japan Center for International Cooperation in Conservation|
|■Department of Intangible Cultural Heritage|
The Department of Intangible Cultural Heritage is engaged in studies related to the conservation and utilization of intangible folk cultural properties of Japan. As an example of research associated with the actual transmission of folk performing arts and their performances, an on-site investigation was made into the activities of kagura Monzen Toji Mura at Midoricho, Akitakata-shi, Hiroshima prefecture. Midoricho (formerly Midoricho, Takata-gun, Hiroshima prefecture) is known for geihoku kagura, a type of kagura that has been transmitted in the northwestern area of Hiroshima prefecture. Presently there are 13 kagura troupes that are active, and some of their repertories and groups are designated intangible folk cultural properties of Hiroshima prefecture. However, the reason that this type of kagura is well known today is because the repertories called shinmai, which was created after the War and which incorporates new tastes, has become firmly established among the people of the area as a form of entertainment. kagura Monzen Toji Mura is a facility for relaxation and entertainment that was opened to the public at Midoricho in 1998. This and the kagura Dome, a theater especially for kagura with a capacity of 3000 people, function as symbols for the popularity of this new type of kagura.
At kagura Dome regular performances are held every Sunday and on national holidays by kagura troupes of Midoricho. In addition, on Saturdays open rehearsals are held at Kamukura Theater, an indoor stage attached to the facility as are various kinds of kagura competitions, such as the Hiroshima kagura Grand Prix. These performances are attended by people from not only Hiroshima but also other prefectures. Moreover, since the theater is opened to the public as a place that can be used regularly for the practice of kagura and since opportunities for performances are guaranteed throughout the year, for the kagura troupes of Midoricho it serves as a site for transmitting kagura. Since many of the audience are residents of neighboring districts, it may be said that this is a facility that is firmly rooted in the area.
Although kagura of this nature, the purpose of which performance is entertainment, may be thought to be rather new, it has been reported that kagura and bon-odori competitions have been held in areas around Hiroshima prefecture from before the War. The oldest competition that is still being held today dates to 1947 and has a history of over 50 years. In addition to popular shinmai, competitions are also held in the skills of kyumai, the traditional repertories. Thus the fact that these events support the transmission and vitalization of traditional repertories cannot be overlooked. The popularity of “kagura as entertainment” as found in Midoricho is spreading to neighboring Shimane and Okayama prefectures today.
Of course, some issues have been pointed out for consideration, such as economic stabilization, apprehension concerning changes in the nature of kagura and the question as to whether major performing groups should be limited to kagura troupes of Midoricho or not. However, it is also a fact that such a phenomenon is effective in the transmission of culture and the formation of the identity of a given area. It may be said that this phenomenon is a very interesting example of the transmission of folk performing arts in today’s world.
With the dismantling and transporting of the first stone of the west wall on which is drawn a painting known as “Group of Male Figures” to the Temporary Restoration Facility on June 26, the dismantling of the stone chamber of Takamatsuzuka Tumulus that started in April 2007 has been completed with the exception of the floor stone. The National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo is engaged in the work of conserving the wall paintings of Takamatsuzuka Tumulus, including the restoration of the paintings, biological investigation and environmental control.
The following sections of the stone chamber were dismantled and transported (in order): June 7th – the second stone of the east wall (Seiryu, the blue dragon); 14th – the second stone of the west wall (Byakko, the white tiger); 15th – south wall; 22nd – the first stone of the east wall (Group of Male Figures); and 26th – the first stone of the west wall (Group of Male Figures). The restoration team removed the plaster that covered the spaces between the stones and applied synthetic paper to the surface of the paintings in order to transport them safely. Materials needed as well as the timing for doing this work was carefully considered so as to reduce the risk of fungal growth. Moreover, every time a stone was taken out, the biology team investigated the microorganisms within the tumulus. As the stone chamber was dismantled piece by piece the environment team covered what was still left of the chamber with insulation in order to keep the humidity around the paintings stable.
Stones taken into the Temporary Restoration Facility will undergo photographing, sampling and cleaning. They will then be taken into the restoration workroom. After the facing on the surface is removed, the condition of the wall paintings will be observed and recorded in order to collect information necessary for the restoration of the wall paintings which will be conducted over a long period of time.
The investigation team that was dispatched last year conducted basic investigation of the Prambanan Temple Compounds, a World Heritage, which was destroyed by the earthquake that shook the Island of Java on May 27, 2006. The investigation included a survey of the condition of damage, history of restoration, ground property, vibration character of the structures and other issues. At a meeting of experts that was held at the site on June 29 and 30, 2007 the results of investigation, including that of the foundation and structures conducted by the Indonesian side, were discussed comprehensively. Based on this, fundamental ideas regarding the policy of restoration, including a partial dismantlement, and work procedures were decided. In addition, investigation items necessary to actually carry out restoration were discussed.
Japan’s technical cooperation will consist of providing necessary support for drawing restoration plans, within this fiscal year, for the Prambanan Temple, which holds a central position within the entire compound and whose early re-opening to the public is desired. In concrete terms, a seismograph will be installed to elucidate the vibration character of the structure and thereby propose necessary methods for structural reinforcement. In addition, orthographic images will be made and the condition of damage of each stone, method of restoration and areas of dismantlement will be indicated on them in order to prepare a detailed plan for restoration that will make an estimation of the cost possible. For this purpose, another on-site investigation is scheduled to be made after September.
Offers of donation were made to the Institute from the Tokyo Art Dealers’ Association to fund its projects to publish the results of investigation and studies concerning cultural properties and from the Tokyo Bijutsu Club to fund research projects of the Institute.
The Tokyo Art Dealers’ Association has donated 1,000,000 every spring and autumn since the autumn of 2001 and this is the twelfth time. The Tokyo Bijutsu Club donated 1,000,000 last autumn and this is the second donation.
On May 28, Director General Suzuki received the donations from Director Shimojo Kei’ichi of the Tokyo Art Dealers’ Association and President Asaki Masakatsu of the Tokyo Bijutsu Club at the Tokyo Art Dealers’ Association in Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo. The ceremony was followed by an informal meeting to discuss matters related to cultural projects such as the conservation of cultural properties and the exhibition of art objects.
We greatly appreciate the understanding that has been shown to us about the projects undertaken by the Institute and wish to make use of these donations for the promotion of our projects.
Fuzokuzu, better known as Hikone Byobu since it was transmitted in the Ii family of Hikone, is rich with its composition that provides a narrative sense and the minute descriptions found in the figures and furnitures depicted. However, not much is known about the artist or the background for its creation. In addition, several interpretations have been made as to the fact that, the six pieces that constitute the folding screen have been passed down separately even though it is called a byobu (folding screen). As this screen will be restored over a period of 2 years from fiscal year 2006 as a project subsidized by the Agency for Cultural Affairs and Shiga prefecture, an investigation of the screen was conducted by the Hikone Castle Museum and the Institute. High-resolution digital images, infrared and photo-luminescence images were taken, and X-ray fluorescence analysis was made. Presently, we are editing the report on the results of our investigation that is scheduled to be published on the occasion of the opening of the exhibition “The National Treasure The Hikone Screen and the Refined Beauty of Koto Ware,” which will be held at the Hikone Castle Museum from September 28 to October 26. High-resolution images will be exhibited and a symposium will be held during this exhibition. In addition, the processes of restoration and points that have been elucidated through our investigation will be made public along with the restored screen.
A meeting of The Japan Art History Society was held for three days, from May 25 to 27, at the Kyushu University, Kyushu National Museum and Chikushi Jogakuen University. On the first day I presented a paper entitled “An Aspect of Modernism in Asia as Seen from the Trademark for Jintan.”
The name Jintan in the title, of course, is a trade name; it is a product that is still being sold on market (Originally, it was sold as a portable medicine for all purpose and from the 1920 as a breath care product. It is now sold as a non-medical product.) From the time of its first sale in 1905, the image of a the name Jintan on the breast of a gentleman with a beard in full regalia has been known throughout the nation by means of advertisement on newspapers and billboards as a trademark for this product. Moreover, from the very beginning there was an attempt to expand its market not just domestically but also to mainland China, which shares the same kanji culture. As a result, but the end of the Second World War the company had branches throughout Asia and were engaged in advertising activities in different districts that were no less active than in Japan. Thus, in my presentation I explained, through the visual image presented by the advertisement for Jintan, how the company tried to present its product and how, on the other hand, people of Asia viewed this product. By selecting this topic as an aspect, I discussed the issues related to the study of art history and administration associated with fine arts from the 1910s to the 1930s from the point of view of “modernism in Asia.”
In my presentation, I placed focus on the study of Asian art that Yashiro Yukio (the director of The Institute of Art Research, the forerunner of this Institute, in its early years), Odaka Sennosuke (1901-33; a researcher in the Institute) and others conceived and the investigations that they conducted in different areas. The reason for doing so was that since one can already find a Jintan advertisement in the photographs taken by these researchers I thought that it is possible to verify, in the overlap of pre-War economic activities and studies on the humanities, the concept of “Asia” that the Japanese had at that time. For this presentation, I consulted the 75th Year of the History of the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo (tentative title), which will be published during this fiscal year, and the collection of research on Odaka Sennosuke, who is now being re-evaluated as a researcher of Asian Buddhist art. From this point, my presentation was not merely a presentation of a private study but also a report on one of the present circumstances concerning this Institute’s research on “art history.”
Opening of the Special Exhibit: Conservation of Japanese Art Objects Overseas and restoration plan for fiscal year
The National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo is engaged in the cooperation of the conservation of Japanese art objects that are in the collection of art galleries and museums overseas and in conducting joint research concerning conservation of such objects with their respective institutions. On April 20, 5 paintings and 1 craftwork whose restoration was complete at the end of March 2006 were introduced to the Administrative Committee of the Cooperative Program for the Conservation of Japanese Art Objects Overseas. In addition, a special exhibition was held from May 15 to 27 at the Thematic Exhibition Room on the first floor of Heiseikan of the Tokyo National Museum so that this project may be more widely known. These objects are: Struggles of Genji and Heike Clans (a pair of folding screens; Osterreichisches Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Austria), Screens Illustrating Views of Kyoto and its Environs (a pair of folding screens; Royal Ontario Museum, Canada), Scenes from the Hogen Monogatari Tales (a folding screen; Naprstk Museum, Czech Republic), Meikocho (a folding screen; National Gallery in Prague, Czech Republic), Female Ghost (by Utagawa Toyoharu, a hanging scroll; ibid) and Makie Decoration Cabinet with Landscape and Human (Museo National de Artes Decorativas, Spain).
In fiscal year 2007, 5 paintings (4 new ones and 1 whose restoration will be continued from last year) and 4 craftworks (2 new ones and 2 which will be continued from last year) are being restored in Japan. These are: Kyoto Festivals (Hie Sanno Screen, a pair of folding screens; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, USA), A Shinto Painting of Yuima (a hanging scroll; Kimbell Art Museum, USA), The Buddha and the Sixteen Protectors (a hanging scroll; National Gallery of Australia), Birds and Flowers (by Hagetsu Tosatsu, a pair of folding screens; National Gallery of Victoria, Australia), and The Descent of the Amitābha Trinity (Amida mit Seishi und Kannon, a painting on canvas; Museum Rietberg, Switzerland; second year of restoration), Large Box for Writing Implements (hakubako) (Ferenc Hopp Museum of East Asian Art, Hungary), Cabinet with Mounting, European influenced shape（Osterreichisches Museum für Angewandte Kunst, Austria), The Writing Desk with Flower Design with Nagasaki raden technique (National Museum in Krakow, Poland; second year of restoration), and The Cabinet with Drawer for Inro with Chinese landscape by Nagasaki raden technique (Museo D’Arte Giappone “Edoardo Chiosonne,” Italy; second year of restoration). In addition 2 craftworks are being restored at the overseas restoration studio at Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst in Cologne, Germany. These are: Mondlaute Japanese (Gekkin, (Museum für Vökerkunde Wien, Austria) and Ornamental Coffer with Flower and Bird Design, makie and raden technique（Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst, Germany）
Data on traditional Japanese musical instruments can now be retrieved from the “Database on Traditional Japanese Instruments Designated as Cultural Properties” (ed. Department of Performing Arts, March 2006, in Japanese), which was introduced in TOBUNKENNEWS Vol. 25. From 2001 questionnaires on traditional Japanese musical instruments were sent to museums throughout Japan and boards of education of the prefectures, cities, towns and villages. This database is based on replies to those questionnaires from the boards of education and information obtained from the web sites of prefectures and cities. It is composed of 4 items: type of instrument, name of instrument, designation, name of prefecture. Categorization of the type of instruments is based on the Sachs-Hornbostel system and classified into chordophones, aerophones, idiophones, membranophones and excavated instruments. With regard to the names of instruments, it is possible to retrieve information by part agreement search, for example by inputting tsuzumi instead of kotsuzumi or fue instead of ryuteki (fue used in gagaku). There are 6 kinds of designation: by nation, prefecture, city, ward, town and village. However, recent changes due to the merger of cities, towns and villages are not reflected on the database. Data will be updated from time to time so that it will be possible to confirm the location of traditional instruments.
Cruydt-Boeck is a herbal written by Rembertus Dodonaeus (1517-1585), a Belgian naturalist. An original copy of its second edition in Dutch (1618) was imported to Japan during the Edo period. It is known that Noro Genjo and others wrote the first herbal in Japanese from 1741 to 1750 by order of Tokugawa Yoshimune based on a translation of Cruydt-Boeck. It is also said that Ishii Toko, Yoshida Masayasu and others made a complete translation by order of Matsudaira Sadanobu in 1823.
Of the several copies of the original said to have been imported, the one in the collection of the Waseda University Library was separated into 7 volumes after being imported and then re-bound as a book. The first of the 7 volumes is being restored by Okamoto Koji, a book restorer. In the process of restoration, it was found that a very sophisticated Western style of bookbinding was used for the original copy and that there is a possibility that it is one of the oldest books made in this style in Japan. Thus, on request from Mr. Okamoto, the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo set off to conduct a scientific analysis of the binding materials in cooperation with other institutes in order to obtain information that will enable us to determine the period at which it was made bound. To this day, image scanning analysis by Kato Masato of the Center for Conservation Science and Restoration Techniques has revealed that paper used for a book published in France in the latter half of the 18th century was used for the inside cover. In addition, attenuated total reflection analysis by Sasaki Yoshiko of the Kyoto Institute of Technology points to a great possibility that domestic hemp was used as binding thread. Furthermore, UV-visible reflection spectroscopy by Yoshida has shown that the cloth binding, which is thought to be Jouy print, was dyed with indigo. Since the original copy is severely damaged, extreme care is taken to research the various materials. For this reason, it will require much more time before we can obtain the above-mentioned results. We hope to continue work so as to clarify the history of this original copy little by little by selecting analytical methods most appropriate for each material.
Conservation of the mural paintings of the Takamatsuzuka Tumulus, a National Treasure (with focus on the conservation of paintings)
With regard to the conservation of the mural paintings of the Takamatsuzuka Tumulus, it was decided in 2005, from the point of view of prevention of damage due to microorganisms, to temporarily dismantle the stone chamber and to remove the paintings for restoration. Discussions were held concerning various issues such as the method for dismantling the stone chamber and transporting the stones, method for treating the mural paintings and the stones, and the construction of a restoration facility. From April 2007, the work of dismantling the stone chamber, transporting the stones to the restoration facility and the restoration of the paintings started. The National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo is involved in this project for the conservation of the mural paintings especially from the aspects of environmental control, biological measures and restoration of the paintings. In this month’s report, measures taken with regard to the paintings will be introduced.
Various influences that may occur to the paintings when transporting the stones from the tumulus to the restoration facility were discussed in detail.
The surface of the paintings is first reinforced by using cellulose derivatives and/or protected by using a special type of paper. Once transported to the Temporary Restoration Facility built for the purpose, the stones are cleaned in the preparation room to remove dirt and grime from the surface. Although the environment inside the facility is in a condition not favorable for fungal growth, sterilization with ethanol is also done. Once cleaning is completed, the stones are taken to their respective positions within the restoration room. Main work of the restoration of the paintings begins after the stones have been moved into the restoration room. Presently, paper applied for protection is carefully being removed. The painting surface is being carefully observed and ways of cleaning the painting surface and methods of restoration are being discussed.
As of May 31, 7 stones have been moved into the Temporary Restoration Facility and are waiting full-scale restoration.
The fifth phase of the Joint Research on the Conservation of the Mural Paintings of the Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes is in its second year. Staff of the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo was sent to Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes for three weeks from May 8 to conduct the first half of this year’s joint investigation. Investigation that was begun last year was continued at Cave 285, which is considered very important because of the inscriptions of the years 538 and 539 found there and of its traditional Chinese subjects in addition to its Buddhist art. Photographs were taken and analysis using digital microscopes and visible spectroscopy were conducted. Moreover, additional sampling was done not only from the walls of Cave 285 but also from those of Caves 268, 272 and 275, which are considered the earliest extant examples, to determine the period of the caves by radio-carbon dating in a joint study with Nagoya University. Various preparations were also made for the latter half of the joint investigation, which is scheduled for this summer, and for the joint research that will be conducted with the staff of the Dunhuang Academy who will be visiting Japan after autumn. Furthermore, three graduate students went to the Mogao Grottoes from Japan with this investigation team. They were selected from different fields of discipline – namely conservation science, restoration of paintings and management of cultural heritage – as “trainees dispatched to Dunhuang” by public announcement. They will stay in Dunhuang until mid-September and receive guidance from specialists at The Conservation Institute of Dunhuang Academy concerning diverse matters related to the protection of mural paintings. This training is expected to continue for three more years and will open the way for young Japanese specialists, who have little chance to directly study the conservation of mural paintings. We expect them to contribute to conservation in the future both in Japan and overseas.
The National Research Institute for Cultural Properties will feature reports on the activities of the Institute every month on its website. The aim of this Monthly Report is to provide the most recent information concerning the various activities undertaken by the Institute as a whole or by its individual Departments and Centers. For example, in this issue a report is made of investigation conducted by researchers on damages caused to cultural properties by the earthquake that shook the Noto Peninsula on March 25 within a month of the disaster. There is another report on the various activities undertaken to conserve the mural paintings of the Takamatsuzuka Tumulus.
Nihon no Bijutsu No. 492, Cultural Properties and Technology: The Work of the National Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo (2007, Shibundo, 1650 tax inclusive) has been published (in Japanese). This book discusses various matters related to cultural properties by referring to actual cases of investigation and research employing technology. These matters include: scientific investigation of cultural properties, conservation environment and deterioration, assessment of restoration materials and techniques as well as their improvement and development, conservation of modern heritage, international cooperation and scientific technology in the conservation of cultural properties, cultural properties that are not tangible and their techniques as well as methods for their documentation.
Publicizing information on the Institute’s collection of periodicals in Japanese and the improvement in service at the Library.
The Institute has a collection of a great number of periodicals related to fine arts and has published and made available to the public an inventory of these periodicals. From April information concerning the Institute’s collection of periodicals in Japanese has been added to the information retrieval system and is available on the web site. One of the characteristics of the Institute’s collection is that it includes many periodicals related to fine arts that were published from the Meiji to the early years of the Showa periods. These periodicals are also valuable in that they provide historical information, such as that related to paper and printing techniques employed, of different periods. As is the case with many cultural properties, these periodicals must be conserved but must also be utilized. In order to conserve these periodicals, the Institute is making microfilms and CD-ROMs of these periodicals, taking into consideration the extent of deterioration, frequency of their use and other factors. With regard their utilization the public can access these microfilms and CD-ROMs while the originals are treated as valuable documents to be used only upon special request.
In time with the publicizing of the information in the Institute’s collection on the website, a Microfilm Explorer has been installed in the reading room. This equipment enables one to read microfilms on a computer and to make printouts
The Works of Kuroda Seiki I”
In April 2007 the National Research Institute for Cultural Properties and the National Museum, both Independent Administrative Institutions, were integrated to form the Independent Administrative Institution, National Institutes for Cultural Heritage. On this occasion, works by Kuroda Seiki in the collection of the Kuroda Memorial Hall were exhibited in the Thematic Exhibition Room on the first floor of Heiseikan, Tokyo National Museum (April 10 to May 6) . Fourteen oil paintings and 8 sketches dating from the time Kuroda was studying in France to his later years were exhibited, including a representative and the most widely known Lakeside (nationally designated Important Cultural Property). These works introduce the essence of the art of Kuroda Seiki who revolutionized the mid-Meiji period world of western-style paintings in Japan through a new form of visual expression based on an awareness of plein air and color and supported by liberal philosophies.
Since the exhibition “The Mind of Leonardo – The Universal Genius at Work” was being held at the Museum during the same period, there was a record number of visitors, many of whom were able to appreciate the works of Kuroda as well. In that sense, this was a very good opportunity to make the works of Kuroda known to the public. Works by Kuroda will continue to be exhibited at the Kuroda Memorial Hall as before on Thursdays and Saturdays. The public will also be able to view the results of research on the artist and his works. The second of the series of exhibitions on the works of Kuroda is scheduled to be held at the Tokyo National Museum from November 6 to December 2.
Meeting of experts on the UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage
A meeting of experts on the UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage was held for three days from April 2. Twenty-nine experts on intangible cultural heritage from various nations attended this meeting, which was sponsored by UNESCO and the government of India, at New Delhi. From the Institute, Miyata of the Department of Intangible Cultural Heritage participated.
This meeting is an important meeting in preparation for the first extraordinary session of the Intergovernmental Committee to be held in May at Chengdu, China and the second ordinary session of the Intergovernmental Committee to be held in September at Tokyo. Discussions were held concerning the relationship between the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity and the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding which are the core of the Convention, and the standards for their registration. Opinions of the experts will be used by the UNESCO Secretariat for the future implementation of the Operational Directives. However, since there was not a sufficiently common understanding among the participating experts with regard to concepts like “representativeness” and “urgent safeguarding” the discussions tended to be abstract and ended without the adoptation of any form of recommendation or the like.
Although the meeting was not necessarily successful, when considering the initial purpose for which it was held, the various cultural programs presented by India, the host country, showed India’s great desire to safeguard intangible cultural heritage. The Department of Intangible Cultural Heritage strongly felt the necessity to conduct interchange with India.
Air conditioning within the conservation chamber during the dismantlement of the stone chamber of Takamatsuzuka Tumulus
The stone chamber of Takamatsuzuka Tumulus is now being dismantled for conservation. As the excavation of the mound surrounding the stone chamber progresses, the stone chamber will become exposed to outside air and the temperature and humidity inside the chamber is expected to be greatly affected by changes in the outside temperature and humidity. In order to maintain the temperature and humidity inside the stone chamber stable, a chamber with insulation walls was constructed on the mound and measures were taken to control the air inside. Since fungal growth generally increases as the temperature rises, cooling pipes were installed to keep the temperature at 10℃ and the humidity at 90%.
To control humidity, air is passed through a scrubber, a container in which water is sprayed, and the humidity is adjusted by means of a heat converter called fancoil. Since a very small change in temperature can cause a great change in relative humidity when the temperature is as low as 10℃, the value of temperature and humidity within the insulation chamber is put into the computer and controlled by a feedback system. With regard to the control of air inside the insulation chamber, we were able to obtain the initially planned results with the cooperation of Professor Hokoi Shuichi of Kyoto University.
An earthquake of magnitude 6.9 occurred on the Noto Peninsula at 9:42 am on March 25, 2007. As a result, large-scale damages occurred near the epicenter, including complete or partial destruction of houses and severing of lifelines. Cultural properties were also no exception to this disaster, and a total of 21 cases of damage to cultural properties have been reported within Ishikawa prefecture (as of April 4, 2007; Ishikawa Prefectural Board of Education).
The Center for Conservation Science and Restoration conducted on-site investigation concerning damage caused to cultural properties by the Earthquake so that it may obtain immediate understanding of the condition and factors of damage and provide advice for emergency measures and plans for future restoration. Investigation was held from April 16 (Monday) to 18 (Wednesday). Museum objects and architecture within the city of Wajima were investigated.
At a certain facility for exhibiting cultural properties, urushi lacquer panels that had been hung for display had fallen because the metals used for hanging them had been broken. Many of the buildings and storehouses in the Kuroshima district of Monzenmachi near the epicenter had been completely destroyed, as was the storehouse of a museum.
Although many investigations, research and measures have been conducted with regard to preventing disaster to cultural properties since the Great Hanshin Awaji Earthquake, information obtained through these attempts have not been made known throughout the nation, as became evident in this investigation. The National Research Institute for Cultural Properties, Tokyo will continue to conduct research concerning disaster prevention and to make more people aware of measures to prevent disaster to cultural properties by actively notifying them of the results of our studies.
China, Japan and South Korea Cooperation Training Program for Cultural Heritage Preservation along the Silk Road held jointly with the National Research Institute of Cultural Properties of China and sponsored by Samsung Japan and Samsung China is now in its second year. For three months from the spring of 2007, two courses have been held: one for the group on the conservation of earthen structures (in its second year of a 3-year program) and the other for the group on the conservation of excavated archaeological sites and objects. In autumn a 3-month course will be held on “paper cultural properties” for the group on the conservation of museum collections. Vice Director General Zhang Bai of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage and others responsible for each discipline attended the opening ceremony for the spring course that was held on April 16 at Liangdaicun village, Hancheng city, Shaanxi province, the site for the course. Hancheng city is a historic district where buildings of the Sung, Yuan and Ming dynasties are buried. The area surrounding the city is a treasure house of cultural heritage with the Great Wall of China of the Qin dynasty and the tomb of Si Maqian located nearby. In autumn 2004 numerous tombs estimated to be those from the late West Zhou to the early East Zhou dynasties were discovered in the neighboring Liangdaicun village. Most of theses tombs had not been plundered and since much cinnabar have been found in the remains, they are assumed to have belonged to the nobles who were buried there. Particularly since many gold vessels, lacquered drums and stone gongs were excavated from tomb No. M27, it is said that four of the tombs including this one belonged to leaders of the area. The training course is conducted with full support from the Shaanxi Provincial Cultural Relics Bureau and held at the site of a large-scale tomb in Liangdaicun village that is currently being excavated. During the 3 months 12 Japanese experts will participate and work with their Chinese counterparts.