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No.44

AUGUST 1935

 

 

STUDIES ON THE SCROLL-PAINTINGE "ZEGAIBO EKOTOBA."

BY SHINSEI MOCHIZUKI

 

There are two different types of scroll-painting called "Tengu Zoshi." One represents the reckless conduct of the monks in the monks in the seven great monasteries, satirizing them by an allegrory of tengu, the Japanese name for an imaginary deity of Chinese origin; this we call "Tengu Zoshi E."

The other which is known as "Zegaibo Ekotoba" or "Zenkaibo Ekotoba", depicts a humorous story about the tengu. A scroll which is now in the possession of Viscount Aoyama has hithreto been claimed as the only one to represent this kind of "Tengu Zoshi" known to us, but unfortunately, this scroll seems to be incomplete.

Mr. Shinsei Mochizuki, who has lately discoverd a complete version of the "Zegaibo Ekotoba" consisting of two scrolls in the treasury of the Manjuin Monastery in Kyoto, has taken them up for the first time in the present issue of our pubication.

The scroll in question are painted in color on paper and measure 24.1 cm. in height. (The complete scrolls are reproduced on P1. VIII-XI) The insriptions written at the end of the second scroll indicate that they have been copied three times so far, first in 1308, second in 1329, and third year of Bunwa (1354).

Contray to the scroll in the possession of Viscount Aoyama which is painted timidly in the orthodox way, the present pictures are more or less free from orthodox formalities and painted in an easy manner. They show an unique force of expression which is far beyond the manneristic painting of the Tosa school of those daya.

 

 

SCREEN-PAINTINGS OF THE "CHASHITSU" IN THE KONCHIIN MONASTERY.

BY TEIZO SUGANUMA

 

Screen-painting of the "Hojo" (Abbot's chamber) in the Konchiin Manastery have been known from many a year, as described for instance in the "Miyako Rinsen Meisho Zue" (An Illustrated Guide to the Show-Places in Kyoto." But the screen-paintings of the "Chashitsu" (tea ceremony room) in the same monastery have hitherto remaind almost unnoticed even by the art critic's eye. But at present they are arousing much interest, since a writer had attributed them to Hasegawa Tohaku and praised them as the most important works of this master of the Momoyaoma period.

The screen-paintings of the "Chashitsu" in the Konchiin Monastery consist of two compositions, "Pinetree" and "Monkey," both painted in ink on paper. The former (P1. III) is painited on six pieces of sloding-screens, two of which have been moved to a separate place, the latter (P1. IV) is painted on four pieces of sliding-screens.

The boldness of the strokes and the figures of the monkeys, bearing characteristics of Mu-Ch'i's style remind us of the works of Tohaku. However, when Mr. Suganuma compares them with the genuine works of the master, he comes to doubt this attribution, and is inclined to regard them as being most likely products of the early Tokugawa period.

 

 

STUDIES ON THE NEWLY FOUND BELL, CHUNG, ORNAMENTED WITH PHOENIX, P'AN-CH'IH AND OTHER ANIMALS.

BY PROF. SUEJI UMEHARA

 

The study of Chinese bronzes has made considerable progress during the last years, ever since the blonze of the so-called "Ch'in style" was discovered. Prof. Umehara has been taking a keen interest in them, and contributed several articles on the subject.

Now he presents another interesting specimen of "Ch'in" bronze; this is a newly discovered bell in the possession of Mr. Teijiro Yamanaka, Osaka.

It has been claimed that the bell, which is 18,2 cm. high, (P1. VII shows the bell in actual size) was found at Ch'in-tsun near Lo-yang, presumably of the "Chung" type in origin. It is provided with a kind of bolt whici serves to fasten the bell to a wooden handle, and also with a link from which the clapper should be hung. The two bellied sides are exquisitely ornamented with monster-like figures composed of various kinds of birds and animals. It is interesting that they resmble closely to the figures reprsented on the back of a bronze mirror found in the tomb of the Han family in Lo-yang and published by rev. William C. White. The inside of the bell is also decorated with the figures of P'an-ch'ih and other patterns,-a rare feature, rivalled only by a bell in the collection of Mrs. Christian R. Holmes, New York.

 

 

P1. I. Dish of "Kokutani" painted with Birds and Flowers.

Size: Diameter, 34-35 cm., Height, 7.5-8.3 cm.

In the Possession of Mr. Matasaku Shiobara, Tokyo.

 

Sometimes vessels of Kokutani porcelain are crooked in shape, because the clay could not stand the high temperature in the kiln. Impurity of the ground glaze is another feature of the Kokutani ware of the earlier days.

The present piece is also of an irregular shape and covered with heavy greyish glaze. But one must admit that these features are in perfect harmony with the boldly executed designs, so thtat the vessel looks much more attractive thah if it had been a perfect circle.

 

P1. V. Chrysanthemums and Pig-weed. BY YUHI

Painted in Colour on Silk. Mounted as a Kakaemono.

Size: H. 103.6 cm., W.33.9 cm.

In the Possession of Mr. Jirobei Hasegawa, Mie-ken.

 

Kumashiro Shuko (Yuhi) was born in Nagasaki 1713 and in 1772. When Shen Nan-pi'n, a noted Chinese painter of the Ch'ing dynasty, Came to Nagasaki, invited by the Bugyo of Nagasaki in 1731, Yuhi sat as his feet,and, after three years of study, he mastered the spirit of Shen's art.

In spite of rich colours and detailed drawing, we feel the lack of a delicate mood in the paintings of Shen Nan-p'in. Yuhi was well versed in the manner of his master, but in the present picture he avoids falling into a mere mannerism.

From the inscription on the picture, we know that it was made in the 5th year of Horeki when the artist was 43 years old.

 

P1. VI. Eleven-faced Avalokitesvara.

Sculpture in Wood.

Hight: 142.5 cm.

Property of the Sugimotodera Monastery, Kanagawa-ken.

 

The powerful poise and dignified expression of this figure remind us of sculpture of the Konin period, especially as it seems to be carved from a single bloc of wood. But closer scruting will reveal the fact that it was made of several pieces of wood joined together. This and the moderate carving of the draperies leads to the conclusion that the image was made in the middle of the Fujiwara period.

The original lacquer has almost all disappeared; the left hand, right foot, part of the scarf, the jar, and pedestal were repaired in later periods.

There is another image of the eleven-faced Avalokitesvara enshrined in the same monastery. This was probably made in the middle of the Kamakura period. (P1. XIII)

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